By the Iranian researchers it was done; with nanotechnology, the high resistance of genuine leather against the flame in the production of natural leather
Iranian researchers at Amir Kabir University of Technology have succeeded in achieving a project to upgrade genuine leather against flame with nano technology in genuine leather production.
The Iranian researchers at Amir Kabir University of Technology, Samaneh Sepehri, who was implementing the “improvement of the natural regeneration of genuine leather against flame by adding clay nanoparticles,” stated:
The leather industry in Iran has a long history, but with the passing of years of presenting the machinery of this industry in the production of leather into the country, there are many problems in the industry.
Referring to some problems in the leather industry, she added:
The industry has not been given enough attention and support, and research in the field of the industry in the country has been very limited and inadequate.
She said that the leather industry is still traditionally managed,
considering that Iran has a comparative advantage in the leather industry and in the event of scientific and technological growth, Iran’s manufacturing of leather products can contribute to global markets, so research in the field of the industry is inevitable..
According to the Iranian researchers , genuine leather production with more capabilities, such as making genuine leather resistant against flame and accordance with global standards, are considered the priority research topics.
Ms. Samaneh Sepehri, emphasizing that this research has been a step towards improving the knowledge of genuine leather production, added ; since the process and materials of this research have been designed and selected to be similar to the current situation in Iranian leather factories, it can be said that this research has led to the localization of the technology to improve the resistance of genuine leather to the flames.
Also, using nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterial, the length of geniun leather burns reduced due to the resistance of leather to fire.
Referring to the “Improvement of genuine leather resistance to flame by adding clay nanoparticles,” she said; this research began with library and field research to find traditional and modern methods for producing anti-inflammatory leather.
Ms. Samaneh Sepehri continued: then knowledge of leather production in Iran was extracted from the factories and examined in the laboratory.
In the next step, the materials that create the fire resistance feature were added to the leather process. Finally, the effects of materials and processes on different leather properties were investigated and measured.
She stated that the result of this research is directly applicable in the leather industry, and then she added; the leather produced using the results of this research is being applied for in the furniture and automotive industry and aircraft manufacturing and clothing industry, in particular all kinds of work and safety apparel.
She added, Continuation of this project is a semi-industrialization of the product. It is also a continuation of research and study to further improve this feature or other complementary features of leather.
Referring to the characteristics of the results of the plan, she said: the use of natural leather that has unique properties.
Using Nano clay, which is abundant and low in price and has no environmental risks and the use of processes and chemicals that are commonly used in factories are considered the features of this design.
Graduated from Amir Kabir University of Technology said;
possibility of using the proposed method of design in leather factories without the cost of providing new machinery with very little change in the usual processes of the factories, the lack of knowledge or education, the absence of environmental pollution are some of the benefits of this project.
She mentioned; the product of this research can be used in the leather industry.
After mass production and completion of research, it can be used in industries such as automotive, airplane and apparel.
Professor Dr. Mohammad Amani Tehran and Dr. Fatemeh Zeighami have instructed this plan as the supervisor and advisor respectively.
Dr. Fatemeh Zeighami is one of the professors of Tehran University of Leather Applied Science.
After the stone and the skin, genuine leather can be considered as the oldest thing that human have had. Since a long time ago, leather has been as the cover for early humans and even, today it is so. Leather is still popular among many global communities. But why should not we use foam products ( synthetic leather )?
Years before the creation of the fashion industry, genuine leather was used to make clothes and accessories, This matter is seen in all ages and all cultures, Complications of using foam products (synthetic leather)
This product protects the human body as well as the various items. In addition, leather is a comfortable and durable material.
Today, a variety of leather is available to human. Many people spend their time producing leather goods. No product is comparable with handmade leather good.
Now we consider the question which says why we should not use foam products (synthetic leather) and then we discuss the complications of using this product.
The foam does not have any breathing properties for our skin.
It does not smell like genuine leather (due to the use of chemicals and complete synthetic materials in foam)
Foam is not durable like natural leather (leather has a very high rigidity, so that it can be used for towing a car)
It can not be used as a dress for a long time, because wearing it directly, is harmful to the skin.
Compare with a leather coat, foam is not a good insulation against cold.
After a while it will be rotted and easily damaged (leather has a very long life, so that a natural leather bag can be used for many years, as well as along with firmness, longevity and credibility and attractiveness, leather bags can make humans more esteemed.
The appearance of the foam is very unnatural and artificial.
Wearing foam products (synthetic leather) is not healthy for a long time, especially in the hot seasons, wearing foam-made shoes is harmful to the skin because of its unhealthy materials and it leads to skin problems.
Its softness cannot be like sheepskin leather.
Its shininess is not as much as leather, (such as Burnish leather).
In the hot seasons, wearing shoes made of foam (synthetic leather) is harmful to the skin of feet because of the possibility of harmful substances causing skin problems.
But the main question here is why should we really use leather (genuine leather)?
Firstly, leather is a kind of natural fiber completely.
As you sweat with your skin, animals also sweat, so it can be concluded that leather has very good ventilation, especially in the shoes, and also absorbs transpiration. You can use leather in different thicknesses and for various applications. You can have a very soft wallet of goat or a firm and rugged of cow.
Although cowhide can be thin and soft like skin of goat, meanwhile the leather is also used as a luxury and precious item that you can buy in a variety of different sets.
The leather has a very high rigidity so that it can be used for towing a car. The leather is resistant to direct fire heat and it does not inflame. Leather has a very long life, so that a leather bag can be used for many years. Also, along with firmness, longevity and credibility and attractiveness, leather bags can make humans more esteemed.
Today, a variety of leather is available to humans. Many people spend their time for making leather goods. No product can be comparable with handmade leather good.
Genuine leather shoes apart from beauty should be durable and comfortable for foot.
The most important task of genuine leather shoes is to protect the feet and prevent damage, but unfortunately many shoes damage feet.
Inappropriate leather shoes are one of the most important causes of many feet problems and can cause diseases such as deformity of the toe, deviation or abrasion of the big toe, spile, hammer toe, and nail dipped in the toe in healthy people.
Choosing the right leather shoes
Leather shoes are the most important garment that many people spend money to buy annually.
The human foot is the second heart of the body and, of course, the shoe as the protector of the second heart of the body, should take sufficient care of foot against dangers and possible injuries.
But if the leather shoe is not fit, and after walking you feel pain in your heel, ankle or tendon or they damage, choosing the right shoe can stop all of this.
Standard leather shoes:
A standard leather shoes has three distinctive features.
* Standard shoes should have good material.
* The heel of the standard shoes is very important.
* The mold and its toe claw should be standard
The best surface for shoes is the same genuine leather.
Shoes surface; the surface of most shoes in market are of two different materials.
They either have genuine surface leather, or are made of plastic. Recently, some of manufacturers are spraying genuine leather odor to plastic and make the customer confused in realizing real leather.
Genuine leather, due to the natural pores in its tissue, provides the possibility of exchanging air between the outside and the inside of the leather shoes, and makes so-called, breathing the feet.
For that reason, the best surface for shoes is leather surface. The synthetic surface, due to lack of exchange of air, causes bad smell and excessive sweating.
Shoe sole: Often the shoe sole in the market are two types.
1. Po shoe sole is more comfortable and lighter than PVC and resistance against corrosion. The appearance of this shoe sole is solid and more flexible in bending.
When you are buying shoes, you should consider that the shoe sole should not be flat but should be granulated to prevent slipping.
It is very important to pay attention to the toecap of the shoes.
Leather shoes formatting:
In terms of formatting, the space for the toecap of the shoes should be such that it does not wrest the fingers.
The shoes which ha narrow toecap make the fingers to overlap in shoes. These shoes, squeeze the fingers and make them deform.
This is more common in women. The deformity of the big toe in women is 9 times higher than that of men.
Bottom of the leather shoes
Wearing bad, tight, and high heels shoes does not only damage the feet, it also damages the knee, back, bones of the spine and pelvis.
The next item is the shoe body that is actually a framework on the shoe that surrounds the foot; the shoe should be resistant easily against pressure and keep the anatomical condition of the foot.
In addition to standard factors related to the shoe construction factors, there are also other factors related to individuals who are equally important.
The soles of the feet are usually seen in 3 shapes.
High arch foot:
If a narrow strip connect talon and heel, you probably have high arch foot and are therefore prone to torsion when walking.
Always look for a shoe that has an appropriate sole to cover your foot arch or use the right insole for your foot.
Normal sole foot:
If the strip that joins talon and heel has a normal width, the sole of your foot can be normal, which means that your foot does not have the ability to torsion inwards or outwards.
A good and ordinary shoe is the perfect choice for you.
Flat sole feet:
In this type of foot, the foot has a very little arch and heel often is under intense pressure. These people usually experience internal torsion when walking. So choose a shoe that will protect your big toe well and do not put pressure on your foot.
Risk of high heel shoes:
Sometimes ladies, wearing a high-heeled shoes, are so pleased with the false and temporary being tall that they forget these shoes can be harmful to their health.
meanwhile wearing inappropriate, tight, and high heels shoes does not only damage the foot, it also damages the knee, back, bones of the spine and pelvis.
When you wear high-heeled shoes, your back will take a lot of arches to offset the pressure exerted on the feet and it will be out of normal form.
In this case, there is a lot of pressure on the vertebral discs of the spine and knee joint.
The amount of this pressure depends on the height of the heel of the shoe, and the heel of the shoes is taller, the greater the pressure on the muscles, bones and joints
Compared to short-heel shoes, a heel shoe about 5.2 cm, 22%, a heel shoe about 5 cm, 57%, and a heel shoe about 8 cm, 76% put pressure for intervertebral discs and Knees more pressure.
High-heeled shoes shrink and contract the muscles behind the legs and disturb the blood flow in these muscles. Also, tight shoes and high heels deform the skin of leg and and after a while make it thicker and creates a callus. Callus is often painful and change the leg in a bad shape.
Guide for buying shoes
But what points we should consider when buying shoes, we are going to review them here.
1 .The material of the genuine leather shoes which causes the human foot less sweat.
For those who love the quality of shoes, genuine leather shoes are the perfect choice.
The best material that can be produced from that shoe is the leather. Leather shoes make the human foot less sweat. It is more durable and very shiny and beautiful with waxing. As a result, the first choice is a leather shoes.
But genuine leather shoes have high price, not suitable for all jobs, and it’s just better to use leather shoes for formal programs and parties.
To overcome this problem, it is better to use several models of shoes with other materials. The worst shoes are plastic shoes.
This is not specific to sports shoes. Sports shoes are also made of plastic.
But non-leather shoes, which tend to have a leather look, are made of plastic. The biggest damage for foot is the use of plastic shoes
Linen and fabric shoes are the best option to wear. Their weight is lower and they do not bother the body and feet when walking and doing similar things
High-heeled shoes make the foot more apt to screw. Back and foot pain are heavily dependent on the heel.
The high heel makes the foot more apt to screw.
It may not happen to you at a simple party, but after a short time, high-heeled shoes will cause back pain, foot pain, and waist deviation.
Big toe deformity, and bulging of the bone. The toes slowly overlap on each other and the foot shape change slightly.
The heel of the shoes should have a heel of less than a centimeter. In this case, the foot will be symmetrical and balanced.
The lower the pressure on the front fingers to keep the balance, and it makes the back less effort to stay steady and stand up.
To test this, it’s best to walk a little on your toes. After some time, severe pain in the fingers and chest is felt, which will be reduced after pushing the heel on the ground. High heeled apply such pressure on the foot
It’s better for children to use high shank.
Most common shoes in the market are not leggings. Because it will cost more on the the manufacturer, and usually buyers do not pay attention to having legging.
The shoe legging makes the shoe harder to wear and show the bottom of the trousers in a bad shape.
Most legging shoe users use this shoe for great exercise and walking, Because in the fatigue of the foot, it prevents screwing and deviation of the feet Or if they use shoe leggings for formal shoes, they will wear shoes with a skirt or dress not pants.
It’s better for children to use legging show, Because children still need to take care of their legs to walk, they get tired sooner.
So if they use legging shoe, they will get tired later and there is less chance of injury to their small legs.
Soft like feather, firm like skin of camel, from A to Z about ostrich skin and ostrich leather.
Ostrich leather which is produced of ostrich skin is one of the most precious products of this animal.
The unique beauty, firmness, softness and durability are the features of ostrich leather. Ostrich skin looks very beautiful.
Compared with other types of leather, the natural fat in the ostrich skin makes the skin flexible and firm to dryness and cracking.
The distinguishing feature of this animal leather that makes it more beautiful is the presence of points related to the feather pedicel follicles on its surface.
Ostrich leather firmness is six times what is for cow leather.
This feature, with its remarkable softness, has led the product to be ranked among the world’s most expensive leather such as crocodiles.
On a large portion of the center of an ostrich skin and its cut edges, the effect of the hotbed of the feathers is clearly characterized as uniform holes.
Which makes the leather and the resulting product look very beautiful.
Usually, after slaughtering the bird and cutting the skin, cleaning, liming, and deliming are done then it prepares for tanning.
After entering the tanning stage like other types of skins, it is tanned and retanned by minerals and sometimes vegetable materials and after passing through different stages, the product eventually turns into precious leather.
The produced leather is usually dyed during production phase and in the drum or in the other usual manners.
After dyeing, the leather is completed and polished so that the beauty and natural pattern of the leather look is preserved and it has attractive, soft, brilliant and firm appearance.
Major usages of Ostrich Leather in the World
The distinctive features of this leather toward others are its different and beautiful appearance, softness, bending ability, and extreme firmness.
Most of the ostrich leather products include handbags, shoes, boots, coats and overcoat.
European fashion halls have been using ostrich leather for making bags for many years.
But, in America, the leather of this animal mostly was used to produce boots and belts.
Due to the unique softness of ostrich leather, some automobile factories or car manufacturers have also used this product for the production such as covers for seat, dashboards, gearbox, steering wheel coat and even cavers in expensive cars in recent years.
The use of ostrich leather for car decoration is more common in Europe.
Well-known manufacturers of sporting goods in the world also use the remarkable strength, softness, and beauty of this leather to produce special sports shoes.
This type of leather has gradually entered in the production of home and office furniture in recent years.
The ostrich history breed is full of ups and downs.
Ostrich breeding took place in 1850 in South Africa for the first time. It’s breeding and development was slow for fifty years, and it was mainly aimed for the meat.
Kelin Karoo In 1945 and after World War II, established a large company in South Africa to pursue the ostrich breeding industry and subsequently leather production.
Gradually local and regional demand for the animal’s meat increased, and the need for the slaughterhouse necessarily led to the creation of the first ostrich slaughterhouse in 1963-64.
The purchase and sale of ostrich skin began at the beginning of the 1970s, so a leather factory was set up by Kelin Karoo near the slaughterhouse, and he gained required knowledge and necessary training.
Before that, the information about ostrich leather was very low.
At that time, the skin was sent to UK leather manufacturers.
Ostrich leather was first used in cowboy boots in Europe and the United States.
But since 1980, the demand for ostrich leather in the United States and Europe has increased significantly.
Today, 150 years after the establishment of ostrich leather factories in the US and Europe, kelin karoo is still the best in the industry.
Capabilities in skin production on a farm
Each ostrich can live an average of 50 to 60 years.
But the appropriate age to mature and slaughter an ostrich in farms is about one year old.
The weight of the animal varies from 90 to 110 kilograms and its height ranges from 100 to 250 cm, depending on the male and female animals and their breed.
The female ostrich is capable of laying eggs at age 2 and produces an average of 50 to 70 eggs per year, on average, 40 eggs of each ostrich can be turned to chickens.
The ostrich has about 35 to 45 kilograms of meat at the time of slaughter.
The amount of skin of each mature ostrich in the main countries in breeding this kind of animal, reaches an average of 12 to 16 square foot.
On average, per square costs $ 35.
Generally, on average 1.2 and 1.5 square meters (12 to 15 square feet) of leather of high quality can be produced from a mature ostrich in domestic farms.
This amount can be increased with respect to the correct principles of breeding.
According to comparative statistics provided by the Department of Animal Welfare of the Ministry of Agricultural Jihad, one female ostrich is capable of producing 40 chicks per year; each chicken will be mature and ready for slaughter in a period of 10 to 13 months.
While during this time, a female cow will only be able to produce one calf.
Accordingly, the production of skin caused by the supply of broiler ostriche in this period can be up to 100 square meters, while at the end of the breeding period of a broiler calf which is longer than the required time for ostrich, Only a cowhide skin will be produced, which is maximum of 2.7 square meters.
Take a look at the prices of raw and tanning skin and leather of ostrich in the market
According to the information obtained in the market, ostrich raw skin is currently sold to leather-producing factories or intermediaries at the price of 60 to 90 thousand tomans with regard to the degree and quality of non-tanned leather, and the price of a tanned leather sheet of ostrich will be up to 500 thousand tomans.
By excursion to the leather market of Ferdowsi Avenue in Tehran and speaking with the suppliers of leather goods, you will find that there are currently no bags and shoes and coats made from ostrich leather in the domestic market.
And in very few cases, there are some artifacts in a few types are being sold in some special stores and well-known business centers that their prices are at an average of between 150 and 500 thousand tomans depending on the amount of used leather.
According to the managing director of the ostrich breeder co-operative, two factories have activity contract with the ostrich breeder cooperatives for the ostrich skin processing..
According to the information obtained by the author, some of leather manufacturing units in the Charmshahr of Varamin, over the past months, have started producing ostrich leather on a scale appropriate to the amount of skin provided by the ostrich farm, which Dalir Leather industries is one of them..
Dalir Leather Industries, by producing very beautiful leathers with high quality from ostrich skin, has planned to have negotiation with leading manufacturers of ostrich leather artifacts for export purposes.
Due to the high price and the lack of culture and mentality for ostrich leather products, these products are not offered in the country at the moment, and the domestic market does not welcome it.
Therefore, most of the final products such as bags, shoes, and clothing can be exported, and an ostrich producer said that so far part of these products have been exported to a limited extent to some countries such as the Netherlands and Belgium.
Nutrition and quality of ostrich skin
Ostrich can reach slaughter weight at the age of 9 months
But most bird breeders, believes that acceptable leather cannot be produced from a 9 months old bird.
Considering the need to pay attention to ostrich leather production, the recommended age for slaughter is at least 12 months old.
While scientific studies conducted on ostrich farms in the origin ostrich breeding place, South Africa, suggest that ostrich skin fed on standard and recommended diets have a good quality even at 9 months of age.
The recommended formulation by Ostrich Nutrition Experts is based on fast-growing follicles, and growth of feather with more elastic and firm skin.
All of these together increase the quality of the skin.
Based on these studies, regardless of the age of puberty of bird’s skin, the management of new born chicken which influence growth rate in early weeks, chickens has been implicated that the breeding environment, the variation in the quality of alfalfa used in diets and the experience of chicken breeders are some of the factors affecting the formation and quality of the bird’s skin, and achieving high quality and mature skin even at the age of 9 months.
Such studies prove that special nutritional effects affect the growth of follicles and the quality of the skin. With special nutrition, you can have higher economic benefits in the skin field.
Quality and grading the skin
The general quality of the skin and the possible effects and defects caused by skin diseases
or its physical damage during the breeding period, the shape and state of the holes caused by feather follicles and possible genetic abnormalities in it, error in how to cut and open the skin,
and the size of the skin are considered as the important parameters in determining the quality and grading of the skin before tanning.
Defects caused in breeding period.
Hole or cutting caused by injury and wound, the skin surface scratch, the effects of old ulcer which has not recovered yet completely, sun burn, shelling, skin diseases such as blistering, blain or bacterial damage, germinated and incomplete feathers, being bitten, obvious wrinkle of the skin of the neck, the abnormality of the proportion of the part having feather and granules of the skin (crouponing) to the normal part of skin, (should be on average, 60 to 40) are the possible defects on the skin during breeding period and before slaughter and peeling.
The existence and extent of each of these defects has significant effect on determining the degree of skin.
So that the simultaneous presence of three or four types of these defects, even to the low degree, can reduce skin quality up to 4 degrees.
The old or big sized ostrich has the skin with larger surface and big and ill-sorted which has no good quality.
Too young ostrich also has thin skin with tiny nodes closed to each other; it has no good quality too.
The area and size of the skin is another important factor in determining the degree of skin.
The area of the skin usually varies according to age, limb, obesity and emaciation and weight of the animal at the time of slaughter.
Usually the skin is categorized into 5 sizes, including + A, A, B, C, and D.
These dimensions range from the largest size, 156 dm (+ A ), to a minimum of 80 dm (this unit is measured in Iran based on square foot) for D size.
Proper cutting and opening the skin
One of the main points in having a high-degree, and high-quality skin is the style of cutting and peeling the ostrich and its final shape after opening.
Currently, in ostrich domestic slaughterhouses, ostriches are slaughtered on a chicken slaughter line and a livestock (sheep) slaughter line.
To cut the skin, the slaughterer should make a straight and accurate cutting line from the middle of the animal’s chest from the hew point to the tail, and another line of cut upright on the line to open the skin in the legs.
Another cut is also should be at the intersection of the animal wings.
Skin injuries and peak clipping of the animal
The damage to the ostrich skin caused by the cuts or scratches created during the breeding period reduces the quality of the skin, which greatly reduces the quality and value of the skin.
Reducing the damage caused by skin damage is one of the objectives of ostrich breeders.
Ostriches, especially the male animal, are often injured by their own or with each other’s pecking because of their aggressive and indocile character..
Usually an attacking ostrich, with its sharp peak, wounds the skin of another animal, especially the females.
Accordingly, professional breeders in order to keep the skin of animals of the farm healthy during the period from 9 to 13 months, they try to clip the peak of indocile animals of the farm, especially the males.
Recommendations for skin care after slaughter
１-Removing fat as soon as possible after slaughter.
Because fat does not allow salt to penetrate into the skin at a later stage, so the part containing fat will be fragile.
2- Skin immersed in a cold, concentrated salt solution until it is saturated with salt in a barrel about an hour.
3- Putting the skin on the ground so that its surface is below, then the lash part is covered with salt.
4- Five to six days after the blood serum is removed from the skin, after shaking the skin, the flesh is covered with fresh salt again, then it is put in a nylon bag and after packing, it is sent to Dalir Leather industries factory.
5. If you want to keep the skin in place for longer time, after second time salting, arrange them in a pilling and keep in the shadow.
Dalir leather industry has more than half a century experience and a pioneer in technology and leather upgrading in the leather industry of Iran.
It is a manufacturer of ostrich leather in various colors and tannings.