The role of raw leather in the quality of the leather industry
leather industry :Today, according to experts in various fields of management knowledge, the main factor in the development of any organization and any system is product quality. The experience of developed countries reflects the fact that having quality products and emphasizing quality has been the cause of growth and development of those countries, not natural and material resources. The purpose of this study is to determine the quality components of the leather industry, to develop a suitable model for the quality of the Tabriz leather industry. The research method is descriptive-survey and the research sampling method is systematic random sampling and 182 questionnaires were used for analysis. In this research, based on library studies and internet search, the theoretical foundations and background of research inside and outside the country have been studied and then a set of related components and indicators of each component has been compiled using the results obtained from the study. This set includes four components: livestock breeding, slaughterhouse, transportation conditions and tanning.
Product quality is one of the factors for the progress and development of any society and its organizations. Undoubtedly, the growth and development of any organization depends on the quality of the product of that organization, but just having quality does not seem sufficient and acceptable, but how to obtain raw materials, optimal use of raw materials, productivity, maintenance, evaluation And evaluating their performance and updating their knowledge and product returns is important and valuable.
Leather production units are one of the important pillars of society, which due to the task and mission assigned to these organizations, the need to review and provide a suitable model according to the current situation regarding leather quality in the current situation to achieve more useful and effective results. On the other hand, today, leather production units more than other manufacturers and organizations are in the path of a hurricane of change, and they must adapt to this rapid growth as soon as possible and pay full attention to improve the quality of their products. Update themselves with hardware and software changes, and by replacing a culture in which evaluating and reviewing social processes (especially decision-making, planning, and communication) is a perfectly logical and rational practice, and to create constructive changes in quality. Leather should be achieved by managers with new trends and improve the quality of raw materials and resources (Nasirian, 2008).
The leather and leather industry has a long history before the arrival of the Aryans in Iran, and the industries that once had a global reputation in the field of leather production, in the current conditions of recession and alienation are experiencing. Dozens of lasting names left over from the leather industry are each the story of men who stacked their industrial units brick by brick to be a flag of pride and a symbol of empowerment, but these units, one by one, instead of witnessing increasing development. They become stagnant and industrial cemeteries.
Factors affecting the quality of the leather industry
In general, tanning is a mixture of science and art, science is to use the latest phenomena of technical knowledge, machinery, composition of materials, mixing colors and making and producing it based on science and knowledge, art to use taste And the taste in applying scientific findings in its artistic payment, which is manifested in the leather handicrafts of this art. Today, from an environmental point of view, the leather industry is the most important consumer of wastes and perishable slaughterhouses (meat is the main source of protein needed by humans, livestock), ie skin, otherwise these wastes (skin Perishable) releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into space, raising the controversial issue of global warming. Given that the infrastructure of our country is based on animal husbandry and production.
Accordingly, the livestock sector can play a key role in the country’s economy. The skin is one of the livestock items that turns into leather and can be effective in achieving this goal. In order to improve the role of leather, it is necessary to examine the factors that are effective in the field of skin quality, because in this case, the leather product can compete with foreign types, on the other hand, society can consume clothes, bags, shoes, sofas. And the leather upholstery of the cars led us to meet the consumption needs both in terms of domestic production and to increase non-oil exports by exporting this product abroad. Therefore, in order to achieve the above-mentioned cases, it is necessary to consider the quality in all aspects from when the livestock is alive and its transport time for slaughter and slaughter time and maintenance after slaughter and skin care and its transportation for tanning and tanning methods.
In this research, more managerial factors affecting the quality of leather are considered, which can be provided by examining these factors, the necessary ground to improve the quality of leather. Economic factors such as compliance with all standards for livestock keeping, livestock transportation, slaughter and skin removal methods, skin care warehouses, quarantines required for skin transportation and finally skin tanning, and so on. And from the management factors, we can monitor the implementation process of the above cases and their compliance with the set standards, as well as the use of new technologies, including machinery, and the use of new knowledge in the above cases, which all go hand in hand to leather have quality.
Everyone agrees that for the growth and development of the industry, there is a need for well-codified and coherent planning with full knowledge of resources and costs. Unfortunately, the leather industry is one of the industries that has received less attention and the craftsmen have been unaware of this issue due to lack of coherence and coordination. The beginnings of the leather industry and one of the national treasures of the country are very valuable. The fact of the matter is that although the policy makers for the industry have fallen short, but in the meantime the tanners are not innocent, because during all these years, having a macro model and strategy of this industry was never one of their serious demands and they did not want it. In a situation where the world is developing and changing rapidly, although we have been thinking about developing a principled and scientific model for the growth and development of our country’s leather, but now we are in a situation where it can be said that it is not too late.
Therefore, providing a favorable model for the quality of the leather industry is an inevitable necessity, and until we explain this issue, cross-sectional and occasional movements will not get us home. The important basic axes for drawing the model can be summarized as areas such as reconstruction and modernization of slaughterhouses, factories, animal husbandry, skin care and transportation, setting up a technical and professional system and academic discipline to improve the training and skills of unit staff and he knew. And since there is no model for quality in this industry, so the main goal of the researcher is to achieve and develop a model for quality in the leather industry.
Leather making and especially animal husbandry is one of the most important factors in the economic and independence of any country. Because in addition to providing the required meat and milk, it also provides employment for a large group of people in the villages. Investigating the situation of animal husbandry in different regions in order to provide employment opportunities, optimal use of local resources, recognition of agricultural and economic talents, prevention of excessive migration to cities, guarantee of social values, increase production and productivity, effective participation of people in decision Getting, maintaining ecological balance and ultimately sustainable development and having the right skin for tanning, which is more important in tanning, is very necessary. Due to the high biological density of the population and severe limitations in terms of the number of live animals, planning for the optimal use of limited facilities is a necessity of animal husbandry and leather industry in the country.
Numerous factors cause the desired level of use to not be met per unit. Temperature, rainfall, humidity, human and managerial factors, geographical location and… will have a great impact on increasing or decreasing the quality of skin and finally leather.
Lack of proper and rational use of livestock, leather and finally leather for various reasons, severely damages the economy of this industry and consequently the national economy. The position of leather and leather in the pattern of domestic consumption and lack of good quality causes a large amount of shoes to enter the country annually in different ways or due to non-compliance with the necessary standards in slaughter and skin care imposes high costs on society and causes It becomes a quality leather. The role of leather in the society’s economy can be emphasized when it can be updated in accordance with the existing quality standards.
On the other hand, due to the high consumption of leather (for shoes, bags, furniture, etc.) in society, the high quality of leather can lead the community to domestic production and by recognizing the place of leather in consumer culture, basic steps In order to help the progress and development of the country. If the leather industry can find its true place in the society both before production and at the same time as tanning and after turning into leather, it can be in various fields such as employment, preventing the outflow of foreign currency from the country and things like that. Contribute to the economy and society. As a result, all those who are engaged in animal husbandry, animal husbandry, slaughterhouses, skin care, skin transportation, leather factories, by observing the basic principles of this model, provide conditions for the production of high quality leather. They build the ability to compete with foreign competitors.
The statistical population of this research includes professors of executive management and industrial fields of Tabriz universities and leather experts of Tabriz Charmshahr, which are as described in Table 1:
Table (1): Composition of members of the statistical community by groups
The sample size in this study according to the number and volume of the statistical population is equal to (N = 200 people). According to Morgan table, the sample size (person = S 182) was determined.
Two researcher-made questionnaires have been used to conduct research and collect information. The first questionnaire was prepared in relation to the quality components of the leather industry and its indicators, and the second questionnaire was related to the philosophy of goals, theoretical foundations, and executive steps, is a system of evaluation and feedback.
According to the research literature and the four components extracted from it as follows: livestock breeding, slaughterhouse, transportation conditions and tanning from which it was extracted. The first questionnaire has 49 items and the second questionnaire has 29 questions.
In preparing the questionnaires, by carefully studying different texts and using the opinions of experts, supervisors and consultants, indicators related to each of the research components were extracted and questions were asked that could assess the relevant questions in order to have Be valid.
Reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha for questions related to livestock breeding components equal to α = 0.8855, for slaughterhouse components equal to α = 0.8623, for transportation conditions components equal to 0.8623 = and for questions related to Tanning components equal to α = 0.8983 were obtained.
Findings and proposed model
What are the components of the quality model of the leather industry?
According to the results of statistical analysis of the mentioned components and the indicators considered for each component and the results of the test performed, the approval of all four components and indicators has been considered. Because the total average obtained for each of the components of livestock breeding (83.02), slaughterhouse (70.58), transportation conditions (78.81) and tanning (76.69). Therefore, it can be concluded that all four components of the quality framework are part of the important quality components of the leather industry.leather industry,
Based on the mentioned components, what model can be provided for the quality of the leather industry?
A model for quality of Tabriz leather industry (K.B.D.)
|1||Quality of livestock||1. Prevent scratches and impact effects (54/8)
2. Prevention of pasture complications (32/8)
3. Prevent the effects of makeup and porcelain wool (8/16)
4. Prevent the effects of marking (8/20
5. Observance of animal hygiene, including animal washing (8/34)
6. Improving maintenance halls (8/25)
7. Timely vaccination (50/8)
8. Protection against parasites (54/8)
9. Proper nutrition (56/8)
|2||Slaughterhouse||1. Use of standard butchery tools (8/45)
2. Observance of thorough hygiene and spraying of the environment (43/8)
3. Proper skin removal (29/8)
4. Thoroughly wash the skin before salting (12/8)
5. Use of pure salt (8/13)
6. Correct control over salting and its subsequent storage method (8/16)
7. Sorting the skin (05/8)
8. Standardization of skin warehouses (09/08)
9. Efforts to make optimal use of waste, viscera and viscera (7/79)
|3||Shipping conditions||1. Use of preservatives in case of long delivery time (8/16)
2. Use of refrigerated containers in hot seasons (8/18)
3. Carrying the skin after at least one week of salt gain (8/15)
4. Observe all items to prevent skin damage in loading and unloading the skin (12/8)
5. Use of machines for transporting skin (96/7)
6. The skin should be free of any substances, contents, animal waste, water (7/99)
|4||Tanning||1. Soaking (7/95)
2. Waxing and lime (08/01)
3. Leash (94/7)
4. Calcareous ash (75/7)
5. Decalcification and enzymatization (8/1)
6. Acidification (87/7)
7. Chrome tanning (79/7)
8. Determining the desired thickness (76/7)
9. Re-tanning, painting (04/08)
10. Drying the skin (78/7)
11. Leather dyeing (03/8)
Based on the theoretical foundations and research background, the draft model consists of four components for the quality of the leather industry, which include livestock breeding, slaughterhouse, transportation conditions and tanning.
The proposed quality model to the leather industry using 4 components extracted from theoretical foundations and empirical background, and the component including philosophy and objectives, theoretical foundations, model implementation steps were included in the questionnaire, after collecting data and analyzing them, the component Philosophy and objectives, the theoretical foundations of the proposed model were approved, and the implementation process and feedback evaluation system were among the limitations of the research. Also, 4 components of the perceptual framework and their 35 variables were approved as follows: leather industry
1- Components of livestock breeding: This component includes preventing scratches and impact effects, preventing the effects of grazing, preventing the effects of makeup and wool, preventing the effects of marking, observing animal health, including washing livestock, improving Maintenance halls, timely vaccination, parasite protection, proper nutrition and this component was approved with the explained variance (83/02) and 9 variables were approved and this component was ranked first among the 4 proposed components of the model. According to the researcher, it is impossible to improve the quality of leather without considering the breeding and maintenance of live animals. leather industry
2- Components of transport conditions: This component includes the skin should be free of any materials, contents, animal waste, water blue, use of preservatives in case of long transport time, use of refrigerated containers in hot seasons, transport of skin after minimum One week of salt gain, observing all the items to prevent damage to the skin in loading and unloading the skin, is the use of special machines for transporting the skin, and this component was confirmed with the explained variance (78/81), and 6 Its variable was confirmed and this component was ranked second among the 4 proposed components of the model in terms of ranking. leather industry
3- Tanning components: including soaking, lubrication and lime, lubrication, lime ash, desalination, enzymatization, acidification, chrome tanning, determination of desired thickness, re-tanning, dyeing and lubrication, skin drying, dyeing It is leather and this component was confirmed by the explained variance (76.69) and all 11 variables were confirmed and ranked third among the 4 components. According to the researcher, the reason for confirming all the variables of the mentioned component is that the criteria and standards have been observed correctly in tanning evaluation.
4- Slaughterhouse component: This component includes the use of standard butchery equipment, complete hygiene and spraying of the environment, proper skin removal, thorough washing of the skin before salting, use of pure salt, proper control over salting and after-storage method It is skin sorting, standardization of skin depots, trying to make optimal use of lesions, viscera and viscera and was confirmed with the explained variance (70/58) and all 9 variables were approved and this component in Ranked fourth out of 4 proposed components of the template. leather industry
1- The need to improve the quality of the leather industry is currently one of the approaches that should affect the industries related to the leather industry. Part of the quality contribution of the leather industry is related to the quality of the raw leather industry and the chemical raw materials used in the leather industry, of which raw leather is a large part of this wide range. Therefore, considering these cases, in the first place, trying to have raw skin and chemical raw materials is more important in the world, and in the second place, by updating the leather production centers and production stages, leading to globalization in the leather industry with ease. It is done a lot.
In order to have skin and chemical raw materials on a global level, more cooperation is needed from institutions and organizations such as Jihad-e-Agriculture, Veterinary Administration, Slaughterhouse Affairs, Dermatology, Petrochemical Union, manufacturers of chemical raw materials for leather industry, customs, municipality and environment. Be bio-minded, and in the second place includes the shoe and saddle industry and other industries that use natural leather in a way that by updating their products globally, a fundamental step can be taken for the quality and globalization of leather products. leather industry
In this regard, it is suggested that by preventing scratches and impact effects, preventing the effects of grazing, preventing the effects of makeup and wool, preventing the effects of marking, observing animal hygiene, including washing livestock, improving storage halls, Timely vaccination, protection of parasites, proper nutrition, appropriate ways to be identified and clear who to serve in farms and with what skills and expertise to first have good meat and thus provide healthy and quality skin for leather production In the conditions of transportation to the skin, we must be free of any materials, contents, animal waste, water, water, use preservatives in case of long transport time, use refrigerated containers in hot seasons, transport the skin after at least a week of salt Pay special attention to prevent skin damage in loading and unloading the skin, use of special machines for transporting leather, and establish a system of suggestions in the Council of Leather Manufacturers and Private Leather Town. leather industry
In the discussion of the slaughterhouse, if special attention is paid to the standards and conditions that must be observed, quality and flawless skins will reach the leather maker, which will not cause any problems with tanning. In the field of tanning, using modern technology and using the experiences of the past and experienced professionals, and by updating all cases in leather production, provided there is a suitable skin, a ground is prepared to compete with prominent and famous leather countries all over the world. leather industry
Dr. Mohammad Dabaghi Sadr
PhD in Strategic Management, Tabriz, Iran
Chairman of the Board of Sadra Leather Manufacturing
Ahmadi, Behzad and Sami, Saeed (1987), Skin and Leather Chemistry, Mohit Publications
– Ahmadi, Siavash (1990), Leather Technology, published by the Iranian Institute of Standards and Industrial Research
– Bazargani Nia, Masoumeh (2002) The effect of globalization on the textile, clothing and leather industries during the period 1358-78
– Pahlavani, Ata Ali (1998) A study entitled Examining the export of light leather products and providing appropriate solutions for improvement
– Houri, Amir (1997) A research entitled “Strategy for developing the location pattern of the leather and leather industry.”
Khaki, Gholamreza (2006), Article “The Paradox of Order and Chaos, the Main Challenge of Art Management”, Art Management Seminar,
– Dahi, Ali (1980), from leather to leather, published by the National Shoe Research and Internship Center
– Ghalebi, Mohammad (2005) A study entitled “Assessing the comparative advantage and prioritization of target markets for the export of Iranian leather and leather industries”
– Faghih Nasiri, Marjan (1373) A study entitled Comparative advantages of the country in the leather industry