Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

To determine suitable tanning method for tanning ostrich skin and producing properties of ostrich leather, bulk density, thickness, resistance and elasticity of ostrich leather in the main part of the 12-14-month-old ostriches (number = 15) were studied in different tanning methods (chromium, vegetal and aluminum).

Tanning ostrich skin, the mean bulk density and ostrich leather thickness of ostriches were 0/7 ± ۰/۰ g / cm2 and 1/7 ± ۰/۱ mm.

The rupture, resistance and elasticity force of chrome ostrich leather (0/33 ± ۴/۹ kgf), 2/197 ± ۹/۲۳ kg / cm2 and (3/53±۰/۷ percent ) were more than aluminum leathers (4/27 ± ۵/۵ kgf), kg 7/161 ± ۷/۲۶ kg / cm2 (4/46 ± ۸/۷%), and vegetal ostriches leather 0/13 ± ۵/۴ kgf, 7/.70 ± ۸/۲۱ Kg / cm2 and (1/40 ± ۴/۶ percent). (P <0/05).

In general, the mechanical quality of ostrich leather was better in chrome tanning than aluminum and vegetal leather.

An Introduction to Comparison of the Effects of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and Ostrich Skin

Nowadays, ostrich leather is considered a luxury product, especially in the European, American and Japanese markets. Ostrich skin is tanned in different ways, such as vegetal, chrome, aldehyde, synthetic and aluminum.

In ostrich skin vegetal tanning, tannin and extracted vegetable materials such as bark and minerals are used, which usually make leather brown, but the resulting color changes due to combining with other chemicals and the origin color of the skin.

This method is most often used in the manufacturing of leather which are used in calligraphy and etching, or is used as mold to make stamps because they are not water resistant and their color will change.

Meanwhile, if they are washed with detergents and dried, their sizes are reduced and lose their softness and elasticity and will be hard and dry, so if you placed them in hot water, they will be very small and partially gelatinized.

This causes extreme dryness and rigidity of ostrich leather and, as a result, fragility. Since 1858, chrome sulfate and other chromium salts are used in chrome tannings, which are commonly used.

The resulted leather from this tanning method is smoother and more flexible than vegetal tanning and is less discolored and less shrinkage in water.

A half-made or incomplete ostrich leather is called Wet Blue which is due to adsorption of chrome color.

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

In aldehydi, tanning, glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds are used, but because of the dangers of formaldehyde for workers and causing allergy to some people they are not used currently.

In skin tanning of ostrich skin in synthetic, aromatic polymers such as novolac or noradol are used to produce white color.

In aluminum tanning, aluminum-mixed salts with different combinations of protein-containing material are used. This type of ostrich leather is used in manufacturing baby shoes or cars cabin leather because of the lack of chrome materials in it.

However, leather industry requires information on the characteristics of ostrich leather in terms of elasticity and other physical and chemical properties to find its exact application in producing of products.

Because the ostrich skin processing differs from the skin of other animals, the product and its usage vary somewhat, therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of some common tanning methods (chrome, vegetal, and aluminum) on mechanical properties of ostrich leather

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skinFig 1. Different parts of ostrich leather

Materials and methods

To evaluate the effect of different ostriches skin tanning methods, five ostrich skins of one to one and half years old were prepared, each of skin was cut in three parts from crosspiece and totally 15 pieces, and each five pieces was processed with chrome, vegetal and aluminum tanning methods.

The tanning operations included the preparation of pickle, wet blue, wet white, vegetal tanning and making colored crust from wet blue and white crust from wet white.

These steps were the same for pickle’s preparation, including soaking, liming, deliming, enzyming, degreasing and pickling. Wet blue was used for chrome tanning and wet white for aluminum tanning.

To prepare the colored crust from wet blue and wet white of the ostrich skin, the rechorome (in wet blue), neutralization, dyeing, fatlicuring, fixing, offload, drying in the air, softening and toggling carried out.

Vegetal tanning from pickle was carried out during soaking, washing, adjusting ion load, vegetal tanning with myrobalan, mimosa, basintan, tamol, lubricating, fixing and drying, and other operations were carried out to make leather like chrome and aluminum tanning.

The leather sample was taken from the main area of the ostriches skin or crown area (Fig. 1)

The mechanical properties of ostrich leather were determined by the national standard methods of Iran.

To determine the bulk density, three samples were taken from the original leather sample in the form of a circular cylindrical roller perpendicular to leather face with an approximate diameter of 70 mm. The mean of four points’ thickness of the sample was determined with a caliper.

By using Vernier caliper, the diameter of the samples was measured with a half-millimeter approximation and with millimeter ruler in two directions perpendicular to the ostrich grain and in two directions perpendicular to the thickness was measured again.

The mass of the test sample was weighted with a precision of one thousandth of gram and the bulk density was obtained from formula (1):

۱) Da = 1.273 × ۱۰ m / td2
In this equation, m is the mass (g), t is the thickness (mm) and d2 is the diameter (mm).

To measure the rupture force, resistance to rupture and elasticity, leather samples in dimensions of 10 to 50 mm was prepared.

The samples were fitted between pins of the puller (instron Model 4001) and after the rupture of the sample, the maximum recorded force was noted as the rupture force and the distance between the pins was noted as the sample length at the point of rupture (elasticity).

To determine the rupture resistance of 10 (Tn) was used from formula (2)

(۲)Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

In this equation, F is the registered force (Kg), W is the sample width (mm) and t is the sample thickness (mm). The increase percentage of length at the rupture point (Eb) was obtained from formula (3).

(۳)Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

In this equation, l1 is the distance between the pins at the rupture point and l0 is the initial distance between the pins.

Statistical calculations

One-way model (4) was used for analysis of figures in SAS software:

(۴)Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

In this formula, yij is each of observations, u is average, i is the effect of three tanning methods and ij is the effect of the random error of each observation.

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

Results and discussion

The morphological structure of the ostrich skin is similar to the skin of the poultry, but some of its features are similar to the skin of mammals.

For this reason, the characteristics of ostrich leather can be compared with light and heavy leather.

The thickness of the skin of the studied ostriches was 1.5 mm, with a range of 1.3 to 2.5 mm (Table 1). Similar figures for the thickness of ostrich leather were recorded.

In one study, the skin thickness of ostriches of 5 to 14 months was determined to be 66/0 ± ۰۵/۰ to 13/1 ± ۰۵٫۰ mm, indicating getting more thickness of the skin with age gaining.

The thickness of the ostrich skin varies depending on the species, variety, age, sex, and areas of the ostriches body, so that the thickness of the leather of different species of livestock such as blue neck ostrich, black neck ostrich, goat, lamb and buffalo have been reported 1, 9/1, 9/0 , 7/0 and 1/1 mm respectively.

As you can see, the thickness of ostrich leather in the current survey is as high as the figures reported for ostrich leather and is more than leather thickness of often livestock species.

Table 1: The average and the standard error of physical characteristics of ostrich leather and skin.

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

And: ** in each column is the significant difference in mean values at the level (P <0/05) and (P <0.01) : ns, the means difference was not significant (P <0/05)

In the present study, tanned vegetal leather had a higher but insignificant thickness of chrome and aluminum leather (Table 1).

The optimum thickness of leather clothes, handbags and boots is respectively 85/0, 25/1 and 45/1 mm, as well as lining and upper leather of women handbags are respectively, 5/0 and 8/0 mm respectively. Considering these cases, the most appropriate usage of ostrich leather is in the manufacturing of bags and boots, and is less suited to leather suits.

A wide range of forces (76/0 to 50 kg) was observed for tears in the studied leather (Table 1).

The amount of force needed to tear blue neck ostrich, black neck ostrich, goat, lamb and buffalo were registered at 32, 43, 26, 12 and 82 kg, respectively.

In the leather of domestic goats, the value of this attribute was 5/25 kg. (2)

As you see, the average of leather tear force amount of ostriches in this study is lower than mentioned figures in other studies on leather of ostrich, goat, and buffalo but higher than sheep leather,

In the present study, the average total skin resistance was 10/137 ± ۶۸/۱۹ (۵۰ to 273 kg / cm2), which is less than mentioned figures in other studies, 163 to 214 kgf / cm2, 178 to 194 Kgf/cm2 and 10/137 ± ۱/۲۳ kgf / cm2 (see Table)

The range of goat and cattle leather resistance was reported as 94/203 to 93/254 and 93/254 to 92/305 kgf / cm2, respectively. Probably the difference is due to the difference in the thickness of the experimental ostrich leather with other sources.

The minimum resistance to rupture for full grain leather, furniture leather and outerwear of ostriches leather is 200, 170 and 200 kg / cm2, respectively.

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin

Cowhide, upper and lining leather of bag, should have at least 150, 180, 40 and 30 kg/cm2 resistance respectively.

The results obtained in this review are close to standard leather suits and more than upper and lining leather standards, and are therefore of good use in making ostriches leather clothes if they are well-processed and have a good thickness.

In this experiment, the highest mean values for tear, resistance and elastic force were obtained in tanned leather by chromium method (P <0.05), and then these values were reduced in aluminum leather and eventually vegetal tanned leather.

Particularly, there was a sharp decrease in in vegetal leather against chrome leather. Therefore, it can be said that the vegetal tanning method has an inverse effect on the physical properties of ostrich leather

A source of different tanning methods on ostrich skin was not obtained, so the influences of these effects were not obtained too, but according to the mechanical properties of furniture leather, for vegetable and chrome tanning respectively, 200 and 375 kgf/cm2, industrial leather products from 150 to 375 kgf/cm2 and chrome tanning leather for cloths and gloves 250 kgf/cm2, chrome tanned leather in this test can have better usage than aluminum and vegetal for the above goods, but due to the hardness of vegetal leathers, mostly they are used in hard and firm products such as luggage bags and book covers and aluminum leather can be used in car seat covers for tropical areas due to the lack of chromium oxide production.

The average elasticity of ostriches leather was 20/46 ± ۰۵/۴, which is as high as the mentioned figures for ostriches leather (50%) and goat leather (40%) and is less than
cowhide (80%).
The maximum tensibility of vegetal and chrome furniture leather products and is 50% and 75% respectively, and industrial leather goods are between 20% and 50%.

Considering the higher elasticity of chrome leather compared to vegetal and aluminum leather in this study, the use of chrome leather in furniture leather is better, although due to the unique properties derived from nodules of the ostrich skin, this type of leather is usually used for decorative and covering items (Table 1).

As it was said, vegetal leather is more suitable for making hard and industrial leather goods due to its less flexibility, and vegetal tanned ostrich skin can be used properly in manufacturing of bags, luggage, book covers and much more.

The resulting density is less than the apparent density of Shoe soles leather (1 and 1.5 g / cm 2) and to an acceptable level for other types of leather (Table 1).

In this study, there was a positive nonsignificant correlation between thickness with resistance such as leather of domestic goat’s leather, while in the evaluation of camel leather, a decrease in the amount of tear, resistance and elasticity was observed with increasing thickness of the sample (Table 2).

The most important issue which was considered in correlation between mechanical properties of ostrich leather, was positive correlation (3/0+) between firmness and elasticity (P <0.01)

Table 2: The correlation of physical features of ostrich leather

Comparison of Different Tanning Methods on Ostrich Leather and skin


Due to the high growth of breeding of this bird in the country, it is necessary to propose suitable strategies for the use of ostrich products especially for ostrich skin.

Meanwhile, how ostriches skin is processed for leather products is very important, and if methods used properly, it will play an important role in the production of optimal ostrich leather products and, ultimately, the economics of breeder and the leather industry.

The study found that ostrich leather has a good mechanical quality, such as other livestock, and, given the difference between different tanning methods, it is necessary to conduct wider practical studies to access higher quality, especially in vegetable leather.

General factors affecting skin and leather quality

General factors affecting skin and leather quality

Leather quality and skin quality

Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the Leather quality and skin quality. In many developing countries, the livestock breeding system is weak, and it produces small, often damaged skin.

A. Skin quality
۱٫ Geographic environmental or climatic factors

The skin of the livestock is completely subjected to environmental conditions and climate change has a direct impact on its quality.

In drought situations or unsuitable climatic conditions, due to the lack of suitable pasture, livestock must travel a long way for feeding, but naturally it leads to the skin damage because of the collision with a variety of barriers and thorns, as well as the long way and the melting of fat under the skin of the animal.

۲ . Decrements of skin quality – due to external factors:

۲-۱-decrements before slaughtering – such as stroke and scratches due to livestock collision to wood, inaccuracy in wool, picking and injuries caused by scissor, and branding them to identify them.

۲-۲– Slaughter decrements – such as inaccuracy in peeling the skin and the lack of other methods of peeling, using bad knife which causes the skin to rub, tear, and make holes on the skin. Tired cattle slaughtering, bad degreasing…

۲-۳- Decrements resulted from incomplete drying and bad keeping of the skin – The removed skins will decay due to the lack of acceleration in collection, washing, salting, drying completely in the shade, or due to using bad methods in storing and…

General factors affecting skin and leather quality

۳٫ Defects in skin quality caused by parasites and infectious diseases

These defects are mainly due to lack of adequate hygiene at the site of livestock storage, high humidity, lack of light and bad nutrition, and so on.

۴ . Skin that are of dead animals.

These skins are often rough and are damaged by a lot of injuries in the grain.

۵ . And non-industrial slaughtering in house.

In some cases the bought sheep and goats are slaughtered at home and this leads to injuries, and because of lack of full knowledge of the intermediaries during transportation to the leather factories, the skin will get many injuries (such as skin decay)

۶٫ social-cultural factors

In third world countries, due to some reforms and development such as the development of cities, roads, factories, cultivated fields, etc., pastures (especially first-class pasture), which are the main source of livestock food, have been destroyed.

In this regard, it has negative qualitative and quantitative effects on the quality of skin production.

۷٫ Technical factors

Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the quality and quantity of the skin. In many developing countries, the livestock breeding system is weak, and it produces small, often damaged skin.

Lack of technical knowledge of livestock breeders in the proper use of pastures, livestock breeding, feeding with hand forage, livestock health, lack of livestock specialists in the governmental sector and non-technical and unprincipled management, implementation of personal ideas and taste.

The lack of extensive research centers for livestock and related industries according to weather and different races are among the factors affecting on decrease of skin quality.

۸ . Financial and planning factors

The comprehensive growth of the leather sector requires coordinated efforts to finance the development and retrieval system of large and small raw skin and expand the capacity of leather and leather products.

Governments play an important role in the development of the leather industry by investing in their own industrial and commercial policies, but the lack of corresponding efforts for key investments in improving the supply of raw leather is quite obvious.

۹٫ Price

One of the factors in the supply of many goods is their price. But in the case of skin it is not seen as severe. The main reason is that manufacturers consider the skin as a subsidiary of their main activity (meat production)

In fact, the skin value is about 5% of the slaughterhouse income. Of course, the idea that a higher quality of skin will bring more income for the rancher will not have an adequate impact on the improvement of livestock breeding and slaughtering.

Of course, some of the deficiencies may be reduced in mass slaughtering, but in the case of non-mass slaughtering, this would be ineffective and would require a culture of collective benefit not individual benefit.

۱۰٫ Natural factors

The way of breeding and nutrition, climatic conditions, pastures, drought, livestock hygiene and … are among the natural factors affecting the quality and quantity of skin.

Low quality of pastures (especially in developing countries) Long-term droughts (especially in Africa) losses in livestock production, lack of proper nutrition in cold seasons (especially due to lack of forage, livestock breeding, etc.) have a significant impact on livestock in skin production decrees.

Low of adequate forage in pastures, which are the main source of livestock nutrition, and continuous and increasing poor nutrition over the years.

in addition to reducing the production of livestock products, has created an inappropriate physical-chemical environment for genes (factors transferring inheritance features), and it leads to transfer livestock products decrease as an inheritance to next generation.

۱۱ .Lack of convenient communication lines facilities.

Especially in developing countries between the city and the countryside, it causes some of the skin gets decay until it reaches sales centers.

In most developing countries, due to the use of inappropriate means of transport such as camels, mules, cattle cart and rural boats, there is a great deal of damage to the skin.

this matters also show the impact of infrastructure activities on accelerating development activities. Especially economic-commercial.

Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the Leather quality and skin quality.


B. leather quality
In terms of improving the quality of leather goods, some factors are obvious that we are going to mention some of them.

۱٫The existence of a strategy, together with a specific policy and planning for the optimum use of all resources, including human, material, informational and financial, which guarantees any kind of activity, either in terms of production or service.

Because if the goals and plans are clear, they lead to learning precisely and preventing the loss of energy.

۲٫ Training of skilled and expert forces, including managerial, masters and operational courses. In order to obtain high-quality products, the knowledge of that industry is needed, and without any people who meet these conditions, progress in the production of quality leather will be impossible.

۳٫ Access to raw materials with suitable quality – It is certain that the quality of leather produced depends on the type and quality of the raw material used and, if suitable raw material are given to leather manufactures, the products such as leather, will have high quality, otherwise, the progress of the leather industry and the production of a high quality product will not be significant.

۴ .The use of new machines and their methods of implementation – The factories need to have more precision in production grows every day, and these centers must provide the highest precision in order to meet the demands of consumers.

Of course, only carefulness alone and access to advanced and precise machines will not be able to meet such demands. But a combination of the two that can work and bring technological advancement along with increased quality.

General factors affecting skin and leather quality

Leather Types and Uses:

Leather is one of the most valuable products that are highly diversified in creating value added in the form of diverse leather products.

Therefore, familiarity with different types of leather and their use can be considered as an appropriate guide to turning it into consideration as a product which makes foreign exchange.

۱٫ Upper leather-is made of goat, calf, cattle and buffalo for the production of shoes.

۲٫ Nappa leather- is delicate leather that is usually used to make clothes and suede and bags.

۳ – Clothes Leather – leather, which has grain.

۴٫ Gloves Leather – soft Leather, stretchable and made from small shells.

۵٫ Lining leather – Used for inside the shoes and made of the fourth grade pickel.

۶٫ Sued leather is leather that should be from the hale flesh side, and grain is not considered.

۷- Nobuck leather is the same as the cloth leather, but it is made by sandpapering the grain.

۸٫ YUF Leather – made from cattle and bacon skin, and it is tough and firm. It is used for belts and straps.

۹٫ Spilit leather –made of the skin of cattle due to the high thickness, it is without grain and is used to make industrial aprons, industrial gloves and normal and sport shoes.

۱۰٫ Shamoor leather (special) – they are leathers which tanned with oil. They can be washed and they keep water. They are provided by oil of raw fish and are used to clean glasses, airplane glasses…their color is cream.

۱۱٫ shoe sole- a leather that is completely vegetal tanned and it has good air interchangeability and is used for making shoes and luggage.

۱۲٫ Napalan leather – made of the skin of the tumor (mass). The use of skin with subtle wool (from inside), which is tanned with special resins and is very expensive, it is used in cold regions, Europe, the Soviet Union and Canada.

۱۳٫ Leather of bag – a kind of upper leather. It does not have to wear shoes, but it is not used in making shoes but is used in lining. It is made of goat and calf leather and used in cheap shoes.

It is something between upper and clothes leather. It has a high thickness and has artificial patterns and is cost effective in the production of bags.

۱۴٫ Nago leather – Made from calf leather for shoe production.

۱۵٫ Furniture leather – more rugged than cloth leather and more resistant than bag leather (goat-calf, cow, etc.)

۱۶٫ Embased leather – drawing is created on this leather by pressing (cowhide and calf leather)

۱۷ double face leather. This kind of leather is like naples leather but the difference is that, one of its sides is like suede.

General factors affecting skin and leather quality

Types of leather goods:

Coats, single trousers, two pieces, skirt, women’s shirts or dresses

Overcoat, blouse, top, Jacket, windy

Raincoat, mini-panty, vest, motorcyclist cloth, jumper

Gloves, Hat, scarf, necklace, and Belt trifid Buckle

Shoe lace, diving suits, sportswear, coat and skirt, suit.

Brush and hair dryer handle, and place mate, cushion.

Pencil box, calendar and other leather accessories for desk and wall

Delicate leather chair, furniture and chair cover, pencil box.

Toolbox and leather beside handmade carpet, car seat and steering wheel cover.

Airplane seat cover and other leather accessories or parts of cars.

Leather parts of car, cover of passport and birth certificate.

Decorative skin for the floor and … hanging painted skin.

Leather box for valuables jewelry boxes

Photo frames, office bags, women and men bags.

Passport bag, leather suitcase, Leather bag and suitcase.

The case of different kinds of pistol, different kinds of Industrial straps.

Different Types of military equipment such as magazine case, different kinds of medical and orthopedic appliances.

Equitation caparison, the case of knife, bayonets, sword, collar of all kinds of animals

Watchband, men and women wallet, for men’s and women’s wallets and key chain.

The first national chain of clothing , footwear, leather industry

The first national chain of clothing , footwear, leather industry

The First National Chain of Industry of bag, Footwear, Leather – The Iranian shoe industry has always been the subject of
attention by policymakers as one of the successful industries in the past decades with the potential for employment and worthiness.

The national award of the National Chain of Shoes industry has the ability to create a role for growth and
development of the industry by creating dynamic and competitive firms.


The National Shoe Industry Award was first designed in Iran and its specific structure and features were designed
to provide a platform for strategic and clever changes in the industry.

In this regard, the key achievements of the award are as follows:


Since the structure of the shoe industry is made up of micro, small, medium and large enterprises

Therefore, the forms and evaluation process are different.

Dear Applicants Participating in the First National Chain of Industry of Kiev, Footwear, Leather

She had to get the initial forms by contacting the Secretariat of the National Shoes Industry Award
And follow the process below to complete self-assessment forms and other steps.


Ddlir Leather Industries is one of the first supporters of the National Chain of Industry of Kiev, shoes and leather.

With the continuous efforts and support of the member organizations of the National Award Leader as the
organizer of the first National Conference on the Chain of Industry, Footwear, Leather
succeeded in obtaining a license from the Center for Governmental Management Conferences.

Phone Call Secretariat: 22880174-021

Report on holding the second exhibition of Iranian export capabilities

The second exhibition of export capabilities of the Islamic Republic of Iran was held at the ُShahre Aftab Exhibition.

The exhibition was held on November 9th-12th with the presence of eager Exporters as well as commercial companies only in two halls of the city of Shahre Aftab.

The afternoon show of the city of Shahre Aftab has not yet received the infrastructure necessary for such an exhibition to be visited by foreign countries, and it would have been better to hold two international exhibition halls for both visitors and exhibitors to pursue their goals. Companies arrived.

Although this is the second time of the exhibition, its high name, as well as the wide area considered for it, was expected to be held at a wider level.

Of course, this exhibition is not a pleasure for enthusiasts of this field, and this situation can be used to start export cooperation because all industrial, leather, food, crafts and decorative, construction, pharmaceutical and … companies have been involved. .

It is hoped that the best of such programs would be to increase export capabilities and gross national income.

At the end, see our proprietary video report:

The second exhibition of Iranian export capabilities

The second exhibition of Iranian export capabilities

The presence of 600 international businessmen and merchants from 43 countries in the second exhibition of export capabilities and said:
The exhibition will be held on November 9-12, 2016 at the Shahre aftab – Tehran Fair, which will be attended by government officials and parliamentarians at the opening ceremony.

The second exhibition of export capabilities is scheduled to take place at 15,000 square meters of exhibition space, with 12 commodity groups including:
Food industry, automotive, industrial, carpet, textile, leather and apparel, wood industry, household appliances, handicrafts, health products, medical equipment, construction industry, mining, petrochemicals etc. will be attended to non-oil exports We will increase the country and move towards the policies of the resistance economy.

Organizing B2B meetings and specialized training teams around Tehran’s export and tourism sectors, and visiting industrial towns, science and technology parks
Said Iran Expo, the presence of foreign businessmen for 2 nights and 3 days as guests of the exhibition in the hotel to provide a useful and effective space for foreign participants.


With the presence of the delirious leather industry in the exhibition


Live View of the 4th International Leather and Bags Exhibition

Live View of the 4th International Leather and Bags Exhibition

The live show will be held at the permanent exhibitions of Tehran International Exhibitions, as well as the exhibition of bags, footwear, leather and related industries. According to the PR of the Trade Development Organization, the fair will be held from October 3 to October 6 for four days.

You can be live on Friday 5 November 2012 – 11:00 PM from Iran through “Insta Live” Instagram, the fashionable leather industry for 1 hour.

Trying to see all the stands shown on Instagram with the description in this Live View.

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