General factors affecting skin and leather quality
Leather quality and skin quality
Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the Leather quality and skin quality. In many developing countries, the livestock breeding system is weak, and it produces small, often damaged skin.
A. Skin quality
1. Geographic environmental or climatic factors
The skin of the livestock is completely subjected to environmental conditions and climate change has a direct impact on its quality.
In drought situations or unsuitable climatic conditions, due to the lack of suitable pasture, livestock must travel a long way for feeding, but naturally it leads to the skin damage because of the collision with a variety of barriers and thorns, as well as the long way and the melting of fat under the skin of the animal.
2 . Decrements of skin quality – due to external factors:
2-1-decrements before slaughtering – such as stroke and scratches due to livestock collision to wood, inaccuracy in wool, picking and injuries caused by scissor, and branding them to identify them.
2-2– Slaughter decrements – such as inaccuracy in peeling the skin and the lack of other methods of peeling, using bad knife which causes the skin to rub, tear, and make holes on the skin. Tired cattle slaughtering, bad degreasing…
2-3- Decrements resulted from incomplete drying and bad keeping of the skin – The removed skins will decay due to the lack of acceleration in collection, washing, salting, drying completely in the shade, or due to using bad methods in storing and…
3. Defects in skin quality caused by parasites and infectious diseases
These defects are mainly due to lack of adequate hygiene at the site of livestock storage, high humidity, lack of light and bad nutrition, and so on.
4 . Skin that are of dead animals.
These skins are often rough and are damaged by a lot of injuries in the grain.
5 . And non-industrial slaughtering in house.
In some cases the bought sheep and goats are slaughtered at home and this leads to injuries, and because of lack of full knowledge of the intermediaries during transportation to the leather factories, the skin will get many injuries (such as skin decay)
6. social-cultural factors
In third world countries, due to some reforms and development such as the development of cities, roads, factories, cultivated fields, etc., pastures (especially first-class pasture), which are the main source of livestock food, have been destroyed.
In this regard, it has negative qualitative and quantitative effects on the quality of skin production.
7. Technical factors
Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the quality and quantity of the skin. In many developing countries, the livestock breeding system is weak, and it produces small, often damaged skin.
Lack of technical knowledge of livestock breeders in the proper use of pastures, livestock breeding, feeding with hand forage, livestock health, lack of livestock specialists in the governmental sector and non-technical and unprincipled management, implementation of personal ideas and taste.
The lack of extensive research centers for livestock and related industries according to weather and different races are among the factors affecting on decrease of skin quality.
8 . Financial and planning factors
The comprehensive growth of the leather sector requires coordinated efforts to finance the development and retrieval system of large and small raw skin and expand the capacity of leather and leather products.
Governments play an important role in the development of the leather industry by investing in their own industrial and commercial policies, but the lack of corresponding efforts for key investments in improving the supply of raw leather is quite obvious.
One of the factors in the supply of many goods is their price. But in the case of skin it is not seen as severe. The main reason is that manufacturers consider the skin as a subsidiary of their main activity (meat production)
In fact, the skin value is about 5% of the slaughterhouse income. Of course, the idea that a higher quality of skin will bring more income for the rancher will not have an adequate impact on the improvement of livestock breeding and slaughtering.
Of course, some of the deficiencies may be reduced in mass slaughtering, but in the case of non-mass slaughtering, this would be ineffective and would require a culture of collective benefit not individual benefit.
10. Natural factors
The way of breeding and nutrition, climatic conditions, pastures, drought, livestock hygiene and … are among the natural factors affecting the quality and quantity of skin.
Low quality of pastures (especially in developing countries) Long-term droughts (especially in Africa) losses in livestock production, lack of proper nutrition in cold seasons (especially due to lack of forage, livestock breeding, etc.) have a significant impact on livestock in skin production decrees.
Low of adequate forage in pastures, which are the main source of livestock nutrition, and continuous and increasing poor nutrition over the years.
in addition to reducing the production of livestock products, has created an inappropriate physical-chemical environment for genes (factors transferring inheritance features), and it leads to transfer livestock products decrease as an inheritance to next generation.
11 .Lack of convenient communication lines facilities.
Especially in developing countries between the city and the countryside, it causes some of the skin gets decay until it reaches sales centers.
In most developing countries, due to the use of inappropriate means of transport such as camels, mules, cattle cart and rural boats, there is a great deal of damage to the skin.
this matters also show the impact of infrastructure activities on accelerating development activities. Especially economic-commercial.
Livestock development projects in many parts of the world have a positive impact on the Leather quality and skin quality.
B. leather quality
In terms of improving the quality of leather goods, some factors are obvious that we are going to mention some of them.
1.The existence of a strategy, together with a specific policy and planning for the optimum use of all resources, including human, material, informational and financial, which guarantees any kind of activity, either in terms of production or service.
Because if the goals and plans are clear, they lead to learning precisely and preventing the loss of energy.
2. Training of skilled and expert forces, including managerial, masters and operational courses. In order to obtain high-quality products, the knowledge of that industry is needed, and without any people who meet these conditions, progress in the production of quality leather will be impossible.
3. Access to raw materials with suitable quality – It is certain that the quality of leather produced depends on the type and quality of the raw material used and, if suitable raw material are given to leather manufactures, the products such as leather, will have high quality, otherwise, the progress of the leather industry and the production of a high quality product will not be significant.
4 .The use of new machines and their methods of implementation – The factories need to have more precision in production grows every day, and these centers must provide the highest precision in order to meet the demands of consumers.
Of course, only carefulness alone and access to advanced and precise machines will not be able to meet such demands. But a combination of the two that can work and bring technological advancement along with increased quality.
Leather Types and Uses:
Leather is one of the most valuable products that are highly diversified in creating value added in the form of diverse leather products.
Therefore, familiarity with different types of leather and their use can be considered as an appropriate guide to turning it into consideration as a product which makes foreign exchange.
1. Upper leather-is made of goat, calf, cattle and buffalo for the production of shoes.
2. Nappa leather- is delicate leather that is usually used to make clothes and suede and bags.
3 – Clothes Leather – leather, which has grain.
4. Gloves Leather – soft Leather, stretchable and made from small shells.
5. Lining leather – Used for inside the shoes and made of the fourth grade pickel.
6. Sued leather is leather that should be from the hale flesh side, and grain is not considered.
7- Nobuck leather is the same as the cloth leather, but it is made by sandpapering the grain.
8. YUF Leather – made from cattle and bacon skin, and it is tough and firm. It is used for belts and straps.
9. Spilit leather –made of the skin of cattle due to the high thickness, it is without grain and is used to make industrial aprons, industrial gloves and normal and sport shoes.
10. Shamoor leather (special) – they are leathers which tanned with oil. They can be washed and they keep water. They are provided by oil of raw fish and are used to clean glasses, airplane glasses…their color is cream.
11. shoe sole- a leather that is completely vegetal tanned and it has good air interchangeability and is used for making shoes and luggage.
12. Napalan leather – made of the skin of the tumor (mass). The use of skin with subtle wool (from inside), which is tanned with special resins and is very expensive, it is used in cold regions, Europe, the Soviet Union and Canada.
13. Leather of bag – a kind of upper leather. It does not have to wear shoes, but it is not used in making shoes but is used in lining. It is made of goat and calf leather and used in cheap shoes.
It is something between upper and clothes leather. It has a high thickness and has artificial patterns and is cost effective in the production of bags.
14. Nago leather – Made from calf leather for shoe production.
15. Furniture leather – more rugged than cloth leather and more resistant than bag leather (goat-calf, cow, etc.)
16. Embased leather – drawing is created on this leather by pressing (cowhide and calf leather)
17 double face leather. This kind of leather is like naples leather but the difference is that, one of its sides is like suede.
Types of leather goods:
Coats, single trousers, two pieces, skirt, women’s shirts or dresses
Overcoat, blouse, top, Jacket, windy
Raincoat, mini-panty, vest, motorcyclist cloth, jumper
Gloves, Hat, scarf, necklace, and Belt trifid Buckle
Shoe lace, diving suits, sportswear, coat and skirt, suit.
Brush and hair dryer handle, and place mate, cushion.
Pencil box, calendar and other leather accessories for desk and wall
Delicate leather chair, furniture and chair cover, pencil box.
Toolbox and leather beside handmade carpet, car seat and steering wheel cover.
Airplane seat cover and other leather accessories or parts of cars.
Leather parts of car, cover of passport and birth certificate.
Decorative skin for the floor and … hanging painted skin.
Leather box for valuables jewelry boxes
Photo frames, office bags, women and men bags.
Passport bag, leather suitcase, Leather bag and suitcase.
The case of different kinds of pistol, different kinds of Industrial straps.
Different Types of military equipment such as magazine case, different kinds of medical and orthopedic appliances.
Equitation caparison, the case of knife, bayonets, sword, collar of all kinds of animals
Watchband, men and women wallet, for men’s and women’s wallets and key chain.