Standard shoes over time
Undoubtedly, shoes are one of the first wearables that the ancestors of modern humans realized the need to make. The standard shoes that early humans used as a cover to protect their feet from any possible damage were very different from what we wear today as shoes.
Enter a shoe store today and take a look around; High-heeled standard sshoes, standard shoes without heels, boots, standard snakeskin pattern sshoes, sandals, and leather flat sshoes are the types of models that you see in the shop window of this store.
Although these shhoes seem to be models, you may be interested to know that none of these different models that you see in shhoe stores today are less than 400 years old.
You may have heard that some people believe that the sshhoes that everyone wears can reflect their social status. This belief is also rooted in the distant past.
From time immemorial, about 5000 years ago, the Egyptians wore things that looked somewhat like today’s shhoes, which contained facts about their living conditions and social class. The standard sshoes they wore in the past were open-toed shoes similar to today’s sandals, but as Christians believed that shhoes should completely cover the feet, it became common for people to wear closed-toe shoes.
In the fourteenth century, advances in the standard footwear industry led to the use of natural fabrics and leather to make standard shhoes. For this reason, many see the fourteenth century as a turning point in the spread of the fashion industry among humans. It is interesting to know that pointed shhoes were one of the first models of leather shhoes that entered the fashion world, and everyone considered wearing sharp shhoes to show the social character of people.
But in the 15th century, wide-toed sshoes replaced sharp-toed sshoes. One of the shhoes that were popular among women at that time was the so-called Venetian shoe.
The shoe had full heels, sometimes reaching a height of more than 50 cm, and most people could barely walk while wearing it. But in the seventeenth century, the heels, which were more beautiful in appearance and easier to walk with, gradually replaced these strange heels.
Until the 1800s, shoes were designed and made in such a way that there was no difference between the right foot and the left foot, until gradually the standard shoes replaced these shoes, each of which was reserved exclusively for the left and right feet. It was designed and built.
In the past, many people believed that wearing high heels could show everyone that they had more power.
Although shoes were not very popular among all people before the 18th century, despite the sewing machine and the production of cheap fabrics, shhoes became very cheap compared to before and thus provided a good ground for then everyone will be able to experience wearing shoes.
Although it was common to wear shoes similar to boots that existed before the twentieth century, it became common for people to wear comfortable shoes at the beginning of the twentieth century, at the same time as World War I.
Undoubtedly, the different models of shoes that are worn in any region are common and derived from the living environment of individuals and the culture and beliefs that govern that society.
Since the middle of the twentieth century, despite advances in the production of plastics, rubber, synthetic fabrics, as well as the production of industrial adhesives, many shoe manufacturers around the world have turned to new ways to produce and manufacture shoes, which are much different. It is an old method.
Natural leather, which is used as a raw material in the production of old shoes, has been accepted as a feature for the production of standard and durable shoes, and there are fewer traces of it in ordinary shoes. However, plastic and foam (synthetic leather) are often used in the production of sports shoes or semi-formal and informal shoes, which have various disadvantages.
However, these days, the shoe industry has gone through very important stages and has made significant progress compared to the past.
Shoe fashion is not a reason to be standard
Today, the most anticipated shoe is its beauty and the health of the feet is not taken into account. However, the main functions of sshoes are to protect the feet from injuries caused by heat, cold and pressure during walking.
“The fashion of sshoes is not the reason for their standardization, and those who have been using sshoes for a long time should pay attention to the standardization of their shoes,” says an orthopedic specialist.
Referring to the characteristics of suitable sshoes, he said: “Proper sshoes should be made of natural leather and have a maximum heel of three centimeters, and the front of the shoe should not put pressure on the toes.”
Noting that leggings protect the ankle from injury and twisting, the expert said that natural leather is the most suitable material for the production of shoes and said: “In natural leather shoes, air exchange is easy.”
Will 2020 be a good year for the leather industry?
Leather Industry Year
If we say that 2019 was a very difficult year for the leather industry, it will mean that we have not really expressed its difficulties, and only briefly stated the difficulties of this year. The industry was under pressure last year in all respects and even suffered casualties at various times. However, there is an optimistic and, of course, cautious view of the state of the industry in the second half of 2020.
A recent questionnaire asked some analysts, observers of the leather industry market, tanners, traders, academics, chemical suppliers and car manufacturers that the situation in the leather market will be in the future. After reviewing the questionnaire, it was found that these people have generally expressed optimism about the state of the industry in the next six months.
Many of them believe that despite the increase in sales and progress that occurred at the end of last year, 2019 was still a cruel year for the leather industry, which generally damaged the reputation of the leather industry. Rising trends in veganism and pessimism about meat and leather, rising raw material prices, a competitive market for leather alternatives, and declining global demand for leather have caused the industry to suffer heavy losses.
However, predictions are that despite the situation affected by the coronavirus, there are signs that the leather market is improving and the situation is changing. These positive signs have mainly appeared in China, and it has become clear that the volume of sales of American export products to this country has grown significantly.
It should be noted that this growth is due to the trade war between the two countries. In Australia and Europe, especially in the leather and furniture sector, there are good signs of increasing demand for these products. This has allowed leather traders to consider relatively higher prices for their products for the first time in recent years.
It is noteworthy that the leather market will grow more in the coming months. In fact, the market will get out of this situation and will continue to grow faster.
Leather industry organizations have also played an important role in countering counterfeit news about the industry. A campaign called “Macha” is one of the measures that has achieved success in this field.
Along with these measures, it is necessary to accelerate the process of improving the condition of leather and educate leather consumers, especially the new generations who are seemingly unfamiliar with leather. However, some customers have gradually come to believe that alternatives to vegans, as well as other plastics derived from petroleum products, are more harmful to the environment than sustainable materials such as leather. Due to these cases, the leather industry in 2018, although it suffered losses, but never completely failed.
Investigating the effects of coronavirus in the leather industry
Recommendations for resilience of companies and businesses:
Today, we are facing a situation in the world that is unprecedented since World War II, and as a result, various businesses must work to overcome the current situation and withstand these pressures. Organizational resilience is a concept used to deal with an organization with environmental risks and challenging situations. This concept strengthens the attitudes and constructive behaviors of organizational leaders and improves a company’s ability to cope with emerging crises.
By improving an organization’s resilience to problems, that organization is more resilient, and managers make better decisions about the survival and sustainability of the organization. In this section, we look at eight characteristics of resilient organizations to overcome the corona virus crisis.
1- Accepting and understanding reality:
While there is no clear understanding of this global crisis, senior executives in the leather and leather products industries must accept that normal conditions have become an emergency, and that companies will remain in serious jeopardy if they do not comply. Admittedly, accepting and understanding the existing reality is the first step in dealing with this pervasive crisis.
2- Increasing the tolerance of ambiguity
The rapid global spread of the disease (Coronavirus pandemic) and the constant spread of various news and reports about it in the country over the past month have added to the uncertainty and how to deal with it. Confidence is also considered an important part of any business. Too much ambiguity means how much people feel threatened in adapting to environmental change. When changes occur quickly and unpredictably, the information is inadequate and opaque, and the difference in people’s attitudes affects the way they react. People with high levels of ambiguity often have a good understanding of events, and conversely, low levels of ambiguity greatly reduce people’s effectiveness in dealing with challenges. As a result, increasing the tolerance of ambiguity makes it more difficult for managers to deal with the problems and stresses of business crises.
Therefore, the second step after accepting the fact is that the leaders of companies and organizations should increase their tolerance of ambiguity and free their organization from the target of negative news and various speculations. Undoubtedly, this effective measure will improve the psychological security of managers in the face of the Corona crisis.
3- Creating specialized work teams
Senior executives need to keep in mind that the severity and extent of the Corona crisis is so great that it cannot be easily overcome without the help of the organization’s elite. Therefore, with the proper formation and support of different work teams in the supply chain, production, marketing and sales, finance, distribution, after-sales service, human resources, and 3 other fields, the increase of these teams is provided and decisions are made based on the proposed measures.
The presence of the organization’s leaders in specialized teams to deal with the Corona Crisis will increase the better cooperation of these teams and strengthen the team spirit, and encourage team members selected from different levels of the organization to perform their duties effectively.
4- Analysis-based decision making
Although the imposition of the Corona Crisis has prompted top executives in the leather and leather goods industries to take urgent action, this should not cause them to act hastily. Decision-making based on data analysis is the key that senior executives should not overlook.
In fact, senior managers, in addition to taking advantage of their intuition, which has emerged from their many years of experience and learning, must use the coherent analysis of work teams that have produced and processed a variety of information.
5- Identifying leverage points
Leverage points are neighborhoods of a complex system where a small change in a component can bring about major changes in all components of the system. In the event of a coronavirus crisis, industry managers need to identify leverage points and guide the organization in the right direction.
There is no quick and easy formula for finding leverage points, and every company needs to learn where its leverage points are based on re-examining its performance. In fact, focusing on leverage will lead to the realization of organizational strategies and improve the activities of the organization and provide services to customers.
Focusing on the leverage points that are the strengths of the organization provides a more competitive advantage for the organization. In this regard, you should also pay attention to the key competencies and key factors of success.
6- Timely notification
Informing and clarifying the decisions and actions of the organization to stakeholders, including suppliers, employees, suppliers, customers and shareholders, is one of the valuable activities that will provide effective support to stakeholders. Continuing to provide timely information will put the organization’s managers in a position to ensure that stakeholders avoid future potential tensions.
Clarifying the actions taken and the decisions taken along with the honest behavior can help the leaders of the organization to draw a realistic and optimistic outlook and have a positive impact on stakeholders, especially employees and shareholders.
7- Entrepreneurial and creative actions
Today, we are facing a crisis that the passage of and the aftermath will no longer mean a return to the original conditions. The supply chain in the world is damaged. Therefore, leather manufacturers and leather products need entrepreneurial measures to supply raw materials, find new resources, better communication with customers, and enter new fields.
In the post-Corona period, we will see a change in customer attitudes and lifestyles that will affect the logic of business models and the value proposition. Therefore, senior managers should pay attention to entrepreneurial measures to solve problems, find new solutions and attract employee participation. It is important to discover new opportunities and take advantage of existing capacities or capabilities in this field.
8- Empathy with employees
One of the most important tasks for leather industry executives and leather goods in the face of major crises, including corona, is to make employees feel that the organization still values and cares for them. Managers need to show employees that by understanding the various dimensions of the crisis, they are working to neutralize the threats ahead and use the capabilities of the staff in this way.
Encouraging employees to take initiatives will reduce the stress on employees and will greatly increase their active participation to get out of the crisis faster. Employee support in these situations has a positive impact on long-term employee commitment. The loss of talented forces in the current post-post-Macron era will not be easily remedied.
Production of flame retardant leather with environmentally friendly coatings
Researchers at Amirkabir University of Technology are working to use environmentally friendly coatings to process leathers that delay flammability. According to ISNA, Ms. Seyedeh Farzaneh Tabatabaei Hosseini, a graduate of Amirkabir University of Technology and a implementer of the project “Synthesis of water polyurethane dispersants, self-propelled barrel, flame retardant for covering leather“, said: To clean up the air, in 1970, along with many recently enacted laws in European countries, it forced all the coating and dyeing industries to reduce the release of organic volatile compounds.
“As a result of these laws, manufacturers are looking for ways to remove organic solvents from coatings and paints,” she said. Fire, toxicity, etc. were encountered.
“In recent years, polyurethane diffusers have attracted a lot of commercially available water, especially in the field of coatings,” she said. High-risk air considered insignificant viscosity at the same time as high molecular weight and cheaper.
According to a graduate of Amirkabir University of Technology, various processes have been developed to provide water-based polyurethane dispersions. Ms. Tabatabaei pointed out that dust is one of the most widely used applications of polyurethane water-based dispersions in the leather finishing industry, and said: It slows down.
She said: “However, in many applications of leather products, water resistance is one of the most important properties. In addition, today the improvement of leather goods against ether is especially widespread in the furniture, automotive and aircraft manufacturing industries. She insisted that most research on polyurethane dispersions today is based on the treatment of physical-mechanical, thermal and heat-resistant types of water and their solubility. Other polymers are obtained.
Ms Tabatabaei stated: “In these systems, due to the need for heat source or radiation, the limitation of the user opportunity of the connecting component and also in most cases the toxicity resulting from the second component such as Aziridine, their practical use is limited.” To this end, in recent years, much attention has been paid to the construction of polyurethane diffusers for self-heating water at ambient temperature by the hydrolysis and compression process of alkoxy-silan groups.
She added that the main challenges in the synthesis of polyurethane dispersions are self-priming siloxane, controlling important process parameters (humidity and temperature) during construction, as well as maintaining a cautious balance between the degree of cross-linking and the content of hydrophilic groups. In addition, the inherent fire of polymeric materials causes numerous annual and financial losses. Ms. Tabatabaei continued: “For this reason, in recent research, much attention has been paid to the specific treatment of polymer delayed polymeric substances.” Studies in this area have shown that in the midst of flame retardants, phosphorus-containing and halogen-free compounds have been found to be more prolific due to their high efficiency and lower smoke and toxic gas processing.
“Nearly 7 percent of a scientist’s oil and gas resources are used to make polymers,” she said. “Recently, for reasons such as concerns about limited oil reserves, high crude oil prices and environmental reasons, much attention has been paid to the use of biodegradable materials in particular.” Vegetable oils are extracted.
Ms. Tabatabaei said: “Vegetable oils have attracted the attention of the majority due to their abundance and availability, cheapness, non-viscosity and high thermal stability.” Therefore, in recent years, a lot of research has been done on the use of vegetable oils as raw materials in the manufacture of polymers, especially polyurethane diffusers.
Provide innovative designs to create coatings as a raw material for leather
She added: “The purpose of this study is to design an innovative and environmentally friendly design of polyurethane and water-based dispensers as flame retardant coatings to complete the leather.” For this purpose, in the first phase of the study, in order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of polyurethane water-based dispersants in order to be used in covering the leather surface, Ceylon cross-linker was used and its concentration in the formulation was optimized.
She emphasized: in the continuity of flame retardation properties and water absorption resistance, water-based polyurethane films were modified. In the end, these coatings were applied to natural leather. The continuity is explained in detail in the research and its initiative. Referring to the project process carried out in Spain, Ms. Tabatabaei said: “First, water-based polyurethane dispersions with the ability to establish a connection were made at ambient temperature, and then the structural, colloidal, surface, physical-mechanical and thermal properties were examined.”
She noted that the gel content, for example, contained 10 percent by weight of the silane binder, and 90.5 percent, which confirmed the structure of the siloxane network. An increase in the concentration of alkoxycylan from zero to 10% by weight resulted in an increase in particle size from 36.5 to 63 nm. However, the specimens were kept at room temperature for more than 12 months and no signs of settling or duplication were observed. A morphological study shed light on the healing effect of microfossil separation in the presence of alkoxycylan. In addition, as the cross-linking rate increased, the system became more rigid, leading to an increase in the glass transfer temperature, the Young’s modulus, and tensile strength, as well as a decrease in length during rupture.
Ms. Tabatabaei added: “On the other hand, the self-cooking water-based polyurethane films showed their waterproofing properties and high thermal stability, which was due to the excellent performance of the siloxane network.” As a general result, the presence of 10% by weight of the silane binding agent significantly improved the dispersion, waterproofing, mechanical and heating properties. Therefore, in the next section, the optimal concentration of 10% by weight of alkoxy silan was used to make the dispersers. She continued: “In the second division of the study, the commercial phosphorous dialer was used as a flame retardant agent of the active species to reflect with isocyanate.”
“We used castor oil as a good option to increase leathery water leakage,” he said. Therefore, the use of this oil in the manufacture of water-based polyurethane diffusers has not only led to the treatment of system dehydration, but also increased the amount of renewable food in the formulation, which is a positive step towards new concerns about the limitations of fossil fuels.
She insisted that this was the reason why we used castor oil to cover the leather: We made a pact.
She noted that the water absorption values of water-based polyurethane films increased with the addition of phosphorus. However, in order to improve the drainage of the system, castor oil was used in the formulation and led to an increase in the contact angle of the water and resistance to water absorption of the films. The film’s marginal oxygen index of 8.7 percent of the phosphorus dial was 30.4 percent, with a score of 0 in the UL-94 vertical ignition test.
According to the researcher, the results of the cone thermometer test on the micro scale for examples containing phosphorus dialyses, significant reductions in heat release rates, maximum temperature in the peak release rate peak, total released heat and released heat capacity. Based on the results of the tests, the mechanism of thermal degradation of the polyurethane water-based flame retardant was obtained in part from the gas phase species and mainly from the compressed phase resulting from the establishment of the protective charcoal layer in the light of phosphorus and silicon.
The graduate of Amirkabir University of Technology added: “Finally, it can be concluded that by changing the weighted content of phosphorus D.L and renewable poly-L, water-based polyurethanes with various properties “can be used to apply ember delay coatings.
She concluded: “Finally, in order to investigate the effect of polyurethane water-based flame retardant samples containing castor oil as a cover for natural leather, some important qualitative tests were performed along with the oxygen boundary index test on coated leathers of these samples.”
Referring to the results of his research, Tabatabai said: “Based on the results of tests performed on polyurethane diffusers and films, flame retardant base containing castor oil, these samples have the desired properties for use in covering natural leather surface.” Covering films for all samples are free of adhesive with very high transparency and excellent adhesion to the lower layers of leather. Finally, in dry samples, very good brightness and water stain were reported. Also leather samples containing D.L. Phosphorus, which solves the problem of flame retardation by increasing the oxygen index (above 30%) and reducing smoke during beam ignition.
She continued: “Therefore, the results of the tests performed make the polyurethane dispersions of the self-priming water-based base a very suitable option as the delaying coatings of ember in the leather industry.”
According to ISNA, the laboratory category of this project was carried out entirely in Spain at Basque University. The supervisors of this project are Dr. Manouchehr Khorasani and Dr. Morteza Ebrahimi.
In this collection, once again, the possible beauties for combining emotion and color_ the industry of heels and leather shoes insole is depicted, Combination of the feel and color in the heel and insoles of leather shoe – heel industry.
Although making “feeling” is beautiful but when it is supposed to be in a connected body (for example, in shoes, including surface, surface decoration, heel, and insole), it must also have a coherent logic.
In the first picture, the leather shoe is made up of a set of independent pieces that their size and colors, give it the harmony.
In such a situation, the heel is also made in this way. It should be noted that the role of colors in this shoe is very important.
In the second picture, the coordination is more focused on the talc shaped surface and heels.
Although the heel and insoles of leather shoe are very beautiful and eye-catching independently, but the plenty of materials used and the use of wood color in part of it, gives such a prominence and effect that put down its seamless.
In fact, in this shoe the heel plays an important role, which cannot be an advantage.
Every beautiful element should be beautiful in combination with other elements, and if it looks beautiful more than other elements, the set will lose its attractiveness.
The third picture can only be a scenic and promotional photo. The balls under leather shoes cannot play any role in it.
We can say it is a heel-free shoe, and the location of these balls is not appropriate, based on design logic and shoe standards and regarding foot health.
In the fourth photo, the heel and insoles of leather shoe form a single body.
As if the shoe is produced and then placed in a keeping chamber for care.
The design of these single and continuous bodies, however simple it looks, is also subject to many limitations in terms of both the health of the foot and the beauty chance of the shoe set.
Usually, this king of combined insole heal are less used in classic and eye-catching leather shoes, because it do not evoke an image of a special and expensive leather shoe, even with any attempt to make it.
Making this heel of shoe is inspired by European pottery pictures of three centuries ago and women’s aristocratic cloths.
Its flashy colors and crass form evoke the traditional tastes.
The result is leather shoes that attract the special or maybe very special people.
The latest heel and insoles of leather shoe is also designed like the above shoe, but it the modern elements is used to design the heels.
The glass heel of this shoe, which shows a picture of a steady man with a dolphin mask, is very beautiful.
The glory of this heel is not only its shape, but also its upper part, as it seems the insoles of the shoe is attached to the heel with a narrow backrest.
The precision in shoe design shows that its form is an inspirational form of fish face that both eyes are closed.
This is an example of a beautiful creativity in the combination of heels and surface of the shoe to achieve an artistic and creative design.
The spring and summer models of 2020 at three exhibitions of The three exhibitions of Simac and Tanning Tech and Lineapelle were held from the 20th to the 22nd of February last year at the Milan Exhibition Center of Italy, and Dalir leather industry has been present for several consecutive years in this fair..
A complete report of the spring and summer models of 2020 at the three exhibitions of Simac, Tenning Tech and Lineapelle
In Simac exhibition, the latest machinery and technologies for manufacturing leather goods and shoes are presented,
In Tanning Tech the latest leather machinery and technologies and in Lineapelle the latest accessories and auto parts for making shoes and other leather good are introduced.
In February, three of these exhibitions, machinery and accessories were introduced that they are used to produce shoes, leather and leather goods in the spring and summer of 2020 (1399 solar year).
And in the two exhibitions of this year, Simac and Tanning Tech 322 participants attended in an area of 18,666 square meters from countries such as Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Iran, France, Germany, Japan, Greece, India, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turkey and the United States.
The exhibition was attended by 150 people, including 3 from Iran, invited by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, and all expenses including airfare, hotel and food and feed were paid by the Italian government.
Lineapelle is the most important exhibition of leather and footwear accessories around the world, which is held twice a year in September and march every year.
In this exhibition, 1255 participants (777 companies from Italy) from 45 countries attended in an area of 47, 500 square meters and presented the latest models of leather, sole, insoles, ironmongery, heels, string, waxes, glue and other consumables in the production of shoes and leather goods of spring and summer of 2020.
According to the reporter of leather and shoe market, more than 20 thousand people visited this Lineapelle exhibition in the leather and footwear market.
The Milan Fashion Week was held in Milan, Italy from February 19th to February 25th, this year.
Every year, fashion related businesses and tourism activities of this city gain very benefits from the event.
Milan Fashion Week is held every year since 1958 annually in March and September.
In this week, Italy’s leading brands in the field of clothing and fashion hold their own private exhibitions in different parts of the city.
Altogether, about 70 fashion shows in this week is held in Milan.
30,000 designers, buyers and reporters come to Milan to benefit from the event.
This number is apart from several ten thousands of people attend the exhibition for other events such as the exhibition of glasses, gardening and machinery and footwear.
Fashion Exhibition of Fur and Leather
Mipap and Mifur are two exhibitions that were held from 22 to 25 februery this year in Milan, Italy.
These two exhibitions, which are specially designed for leather and fur apparel, are the latest models of leather clothing for the year 2020 from the skin of all kinds of animals such as cattle, sheep rabbits, foxes and crocodiles.
and according to the reporter of leather and show market, more than 11,000 people visited these two. This is the most important live show of leather and fur in Italy that it was held on the first day of the show at the San Luca Hall.
From the leather school of Iran to: Presidents and members of the Iranian Leather Association
In line with the words of the Supreme Leader to support domestic production, Iranian work and employment, we have established a school in Iran called Iran’s Leather School for the first time with an entrepreneurial approach and job creation, education
In the Iranian leather school, children and adolescents from the age of six to adults will be educated from the elementary to professional level in the top ten field of leather arts with the best Iranian masters.
Because we want to be beside them deeply and professionally and have made a great contribution to the leather industry and our dear country.
Leather traditional and industrial training Courses in Iranian leather school:
4. Carving on leather
5. Drawing on the leather
7. Leather Rug
8. Sewing sandal
9. Leather mosaic
10. Marketing and sales of leather goods.
Therefore, we would like to invite your dear and compassionate in leather industry to attend the inauguration ceremony to encourage us to pursue our long-term goals.
The beginning of the ceremony is 10:00 am to 10:30 am on Friday, 24/05/2019 for 3 hours.
Registration is open to all.
Address: Iran, No. 12, first floor, first unite, Shiri Complex, near Ibn Sina Clinic, End of Ayatollah Kashani Street, west side of Ariashahr square, Leather School of Iran.
In addition, on the occasion of the opening ceremony, the preliminary workshop on the sale and marketing of leather goods will be free of charge
from 11 am to 14 pm on 24/05/2019.
The priority is to register for the following people.
1. First priority: Art students who registered at the leather school for the education of leather sewing or register before the date of the workshop on marketing and selling leather goods.
2. Second priority: Art students and other ones who have been in my class from some years ago.
3. Third priority: All art students and artists who work in the field of leather even those who are out of our work cycle..
Important: to register for the workshop, contact the Iranian leather school from the date 18.7.2019 and register your name after your appointment.
In case of welcoming the workshop by people, another workshop will be held on the same day at 2:30 pm.
We hope we have been able to help the country’s leather industry, albeit small.