Leather Chair Market To Witness Massive Growth

Leather Chair Market To Witness Massive Growth

Leather Chair Market To Witness Massive Growth By 2025 | Kimball Office, AURORA, TopStar, Bristol

The Leather Chair Market has witnessed continuous growth in the last few years and is projected to grow even further during the forecast period of 2020-2026. The exploration provides a 360 view and insights, highlighting major outcomes of the industry. These insights help the business decision-makers to formulate better business plans and make informed decisions to improved profitability. In addition, the study helps venture or private players in understanding the companies in more detail to make better informed decisions. Some of the major and emerging players in the Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair market are Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI Group, Okamura Corporation, Kimball Office, AURORA, TopStar, Bristol, True Innovations, Nowy Styl, SUNON GROUP, Knoll, UE Furniture, Quama Group & UB Office Systems

If you are part of this market, then Get to Know how you are perceived in comparison to your competitors Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI Group, Okamura Corporation, Kimball Office, AURORA, TopStar, Bristol, True Innovations, Nowy Styl, SUNON GROUP, Knoll, UE Furniture, Quama Group & UB Office Systems; Get an accurate view of your business in Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair Marketplace with latest study published by HTF MI

Get Sample PDF with Latest Sales & Market Sizing Figures @: https://www.htfmarketreport.com/sample-report/1911021-global-united-states-european-union-and-china-leather-chair-market

The Players Profiled in the Report:

Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI Group, Okamura Corporation, Kimball Office, AURORA, TopStar, Bristol, True Innovations, Nowy Styl, SUNON GROUP, Knoll, UE Furniture, Quama Group & UB Office Systems

Breakdown by type, the market is categorized as:
Fixed Type, Adjustable Type & Swivel Chairs

By end users/application, market is sub-segmented as:
Office, Conference Room & Others

Regional Analysis for Leather Chair Market:
United States, China, European Union & Rest of World (Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

The Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair Market study covers current status, % share, future patterns, development rate, SWOT examination, sales channels, to anticipate growth scenarios for years 2020-2026. It aims to recommend analysis of the market with regards to growth trends, prospects, and player’s contribution in the market development. The report size market by 5 major regions, known as, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (includes Asia & Oceania separately), Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Latin America and further into 15+ country level break-up that includes China, the UK, Germany, United States, France, Japan, batch of Southeast Asian & Nordic countries.

For Consumer Centric Market, Survey or Demand Side Analysis can be provided as part of customization which consider demographic factor such as Age, Gender, Occupation, Income Level or Education while gathering data. (if applicable)

Consumer Traits (If Applicable)
Consumer Buying patterns (e.g. comfort & convenience, economical, pride)
Buying behavior (e.g. seasonal, usage rate)
Customer Lifestyle (e.g. health conscious, family orientated, community active)
Expectations (e.g. service, quality, risk, influence)

The Leather Chair market factors described in this report are:
-Key Strategic Developments in Leather Chair Market:

The research includes the key strategic activities such as Research & Development (R&D) initiatives, Merger & Acquisition (M&A) completed, agreements, new launches, collaborations, partnerships & (JV) Joint ventures, and regional growth of the key competitors operating in the market at global and regional scale to overcome current slowdown due to COVID-19.

Key Market Features in Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair Market:

The report highlights Leather Chair market features, including revenue size, weighted average regional price, capacity utilization rate, production rate, gross margins, consumption, import & export, demand & supply, cost bench-marking in Leather Chair, market share and annualized growth rate (Y-o-Y) and Periodic CAGR.

How can businesses use market research to support fast decisions during COVID-19?

The Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair Market report provides the rigorously studied and evaluated data of the top industry players and their scope in the market by means of various analytical tools. The analytical tools such as PESTLE analysis, porters five forces analysis, feasibility study, SWOT analysis by players, BCG matrix, heat map analysis, and ROI analysis have been practiced reviewing the growth of the key players operating in the market.

Extracts from Table of Contents :
Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chair Market Study Coverage :

It includes major manufacturers, emerging player’s growth story, major business segments of Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chaiir market, years considered, and research objectives. Additionally, segmentation on the basis of the type of product, application and technology.

Global (United States, European Union and China) Leather Chaiir Market Executive Summary

It gives a summary of overall studies, growth rate, available market, competitive landscape, market drivers, trends, and issues, and economic indicators.
Leather Chair Markeet Production by Region
Leather Chair Market Profile of Manufacturers
Players are studied on the basis of SWOT, their products, production, value, financials, and other vital factors.

Key Points Covered in Leather Chair Markett Study :

Leather Chair Overview, Definition and Classification
Market drivers and barriers
Leather Chair Market Competition by Manufacturers
Leather Chair Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2020-2026)
Leather Chair Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2020-2026)
Leather Chair Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type {Fixed Type, Adjustable Type & Swivel Chairs}
Leather Chair Markket Analysis by Application {Office, Conference Room & Others}
Leather Chair Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
Leather Chair Manufacturing Cost Analysis
Industrial/Supply Chain Analysis, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
Marketing Strategy by Key Manufacturers/Players, Connected Distributors/Traders
Standardization, Regulatory and collaborative initiatives
Industry road map and value chain

 

natural leather upholstery in car manufacturing

natural leather upholstery in car manufacturing

A look at the use of natural leather in car manufacturing and interior decoration

Car leather upholstery is a youthful idea. This sentence is stated by one of the sellers of car covers on Mellat Street, located in S. Saadi Street. He, who installs natural leather and plastic (synthetic leather) covers for the car seats of many of his young customers during the day, says this from his own experience. A group of car owners, especially young people, are willing to pay large sums for the beauty of their car seats. For them, leather car seats and in addition the dashboard, steering wheel and interior of car doors are calming. Therefore, these people are willing to pay a high price to maximize the beauty of these parts of their car.

In 1913, the Aston Martin Automobile Plant started a small workshop in which it used leather, aluminum, gold, etc. to beautify the interiors of its production cars. The interior products of this workshop, which was in London, were completely handmade. This workshop does not use any plastic material in the interior decoration of the car and even uses natural leather, aluminum and gold in the construction of buttons, air conditioning windows, cigarette butts, seats, dashboards, steering wheel and other parts of the car’s interior.

Although the manufacturers of car interior decorations in Iran are not as accurate as Aston Martin, but they are careful in using high quality natural leather, color, and proper leather tread. For some time now, major car manufacturers in Iran, including Irankhodro and Saipa, have been using natural leather for car interior decoration for their special customers. But since the breakdown of these large automotive companies’ relations with leather manufacturers, leather consumption in the automotive industry has declined sharply. But still some car companies use high quality Iranian natural leathers to beautify the interior furniture of their cars at different costs.

In an interview with Dalir leather industry engineers, we will discuss how to use leather in cars.

Leather cover in favor with the young

Fabric and leather cover are different in terms of price and performance. However, some of the fabric covers behind them are made of plastic (synthetic leather). Therefore, few manufacturers use natural leather for car upholstery, because the high cost of production increases the cost of car upholstery, but the antiquity and durability of natural leather is much higher than its synthetic type and also against the sun. It also has a longer shelf life.

According to the young buyers of leather upholstery, it can be acknowledged that the Dalir leather industry has produced all models of natural leather upholstery in all available colors and designs and provided them to consumers. Iranian car covers are often made of plastic (synthetic leather). This is because the price of natural leather is somewhat expensive and fewer manufacturers are willing to use them in their products.

A group of car owners, especially young people, are willing to pay a high price for the beauty of their car furniture. For them, leather car furniture such as seats, dashboards, steering wheel and interior body of doors create peace of mind. These people are willing to have natural and quality leather to pay a lot of money for the interior decoration of their car.

Decreased demand for leather upholstery

Mr. Shahab Mihandoust, a member of the Iranian Leather Industries Association, says about the use of leather in the automotive industry: “Until two years ago, Iran Khodro and Saipa used to use leather extensively in their custom cars, but recently these types of orders In factories, leather production has declined, and it is not clear whether this is due to declining consumer demand or an increase in the price of leather used in cars, usually car interior manufacturers use cow and calf leather. The country has a small number of them able to pay and place orders for car leather, because the consumption of this type of leather is different from the leather used in the production of shoes, including the companies producing car leather in the country is a Dalir leather industry.

He also said about the difference between the leather of home and car furniture: “In furniture, the amount of wear, thickness and other components of quality and desirability should be considered in production, so in home furniture, the variety of colors and leather treads is different than car. The use of leather coloring in airplanes and cars is more limited and most colors of gray, crimson and black are common in them, but in home furniture there is a variety of natural leather colors due to the difference in the production of leather furniture for home and car, In the process of preparing car leather and home furniture, various chemicals and tests are usually added to the durability and effects of the leather so that the leather reaches the desired by the manufacturers, despite the use of leather by foreigners. In wall covering or interior decoration of the house, less of this type of leather is produced for the consumption of interior decoration of houses in Iran, and if there are cases in Iranian construction, it is mostly supplied through the import of foreign leather.

Rising car prices because of the leather used in it

Mr. Ebadollah Yousefzadeh, a professor and expert in leather and author of books on leather, said about the use of leather in cars: “Before, some leather companies cooperated with Saipa satellite companies. In fact, the reason for this cooperation was that some of these cars were prepared for export to foreign countries, but now these cars are no longer produced, however, the use of leather in cars has increased the price of car interior decoration, and finally similar domestic cars with export cars in terms of price difference. There are some because of the use of leather in interior decoration, in fact, interior cars use less natural leather and use more foam (synthetic leather). On the other hand, some consumers are so obsessed with leather that the steering wheel is also ordered with custom leather.

Today, car interior and seat upholstery are made of cow leather, but in the past, some customers also made this furniture with goat leather, with the difference that they were responsible for cutting the leather themselves and only took custom leather from the factory and the rest. They did the final finishing work on the leather. In such a situation, leather waste would be less for consumers of car covers. Of course, in the production of cow or goat leather in car furniture, mainly leathers that have fewer strokes on the back of the skin are used.

The color of this type of leather also varies according to the order and interest of the customers. Sometimes people even deliver a sample of a special color or tread of leather to the factory and receive the leather case according to the order. The production of this type of leather requires special chemicals. In addition, in accordance with the consumption of leather in home and car furniture, scientific tests should be performed in the leather factory to ensure that the leather in the car is foggy, because during the cold season, the use of leather may cause fog in the car, but this issue is not so important in its home furniture.

Also, for the use of natural leather in the summer in car and home furniture, sweat test is taken so that it does not produce sweat against the wear and body heat of consumers. In addition, the test of leather adhesion to clothing and its negative impact on consumers is tested. The transfer of leather to pvc clothing should also be evaluated. This type of natural leather has a much higher price due to the final payment and testing.

He clarified about the decrease in demand for car leather and wall coverings in Iran: for unknown reasons, the relationship between leather manufacturers and car interior decorations has been cut off due to non-fulfillment of customers’ obligations in due time. Of course, in the field of leather production for interior furniture, the production process continues, but in recent years, leather orders for cars, airplanes and wall coverings have decreased. Although wall coverings are not so popular in Iran, in a few unfortunate cases, hotels or stylish buildings source their raw materials from abroad.

Leather production for cars and home furniture requires new machinery, experienced technicians and special chemicals to increase the durability and quality of the leather produced. Also, the use of leather in car interior decorations usually has an effect between IRR 15 million to 20 million on the price of custom cars. However, using natural leather in the car will double its beauty.

Split leather

Split leather

Split leather

Some basic facts about split leather

. Therefore, the skin of animals is not uniform in terms of thickness and texture in all its parts. The skin of live animals needs to be stretched much more than the back of the animal during movement in some parts Split leather, such as the lower abdomen. Therefore, the lower abdomen should be more elastic, while the back of the animal should be thicker and denser and less stretched.

The skins are also not uniform in thickness. The lower abdomen and legs are much thinner than the back and neck. The thickness of the raw cow skin in the lower abdomen and dorsal region varies from 3mm to 8mm, while in the case of fattening calves it is between 4mm and 12mm. If a material with this non-uniformity in thickness becomes leather, it can rarely be used in the production of leather goods, including shoes. Therefore, it is necessary to separate the excess material from the back of the leather to obtain a skin of the same thickness to produce the desired leather. The materials separated from the back of the leather can also be completed and used as split leather.

Pre-tanning steps of split leather

The first step in the tanning process is lime, which is done to remove hair. This causes the leaf-like structure of the skin to swell and open and separate, making it prone to smoother and more uniform. The next step is to remove unnecessary tissue from the back of the skin. Of course, it is necessary to perform this operation more carefully in the extremities of the animal’s body, such as the lower abdomen, legs and neck.

The next step is to peel the skin in order to achieve the desired thickness. The skin is then limed to remove the remaining components of the liming process. The thickness of the finished leather for the production of shoes should be between 1.8 to 2 mm, so obviously a large amount of leather material must be removed. Leathers are bought on the basis of their weight, while finished leathers are sold on the basis of area (square feet), so tanners should turn the skin into marketable materials as much as possible. In fact, this is because the extra materials are turned into split leather with subsequent treatments, and they have the ability to be used to produce various consumer products, including a variety of shoes, and especially the production of suede for shoe soles.

The main problem with the finished split is that it has less physical strength than real leather, because the leather has a denser surface and a more durable fibrous structure remains beneath it.

Since the fibrous structure of the lower abdomen and legs is in the weakest and most elongated position, the splints should be carefully removed so that their weak parts are separated and only the best parts remain around the dorsal area. The result is a final product that, after the final peel and final thickness, is called the “backpack.”

Split leather produced by the brave leather industry also has many advantages, including its easy and cost-effective cutting, as well as its greater elasticity and thus easier work on it. In fact, the last feature mentioned is that it does not stretch too much in the production process. In addition, by precisely controlling the adjusting machines and using a booster on the back of the leather, it can be prevented from stretching too much.

In general, in a place where leather is considered tensile strength, the better quality of the fibrous structure of the primary skin will produce better quality split leather, and as a result, its tensile strength will be higher. In terms of thickness, it is generally recommended to use thick split as much as possible. Completing the suede on the split makes its surface very soft.

Splits with an artificial face layer (usually containing a layer of polyurethane skin) will be more durable. In the leather factory, slate can be added to the back of the suede split, in which case it is called suede moss. This slate can contain dough made from Irish moss or hardeners for leather goods.

Split leather enhancer

Using a leather enhancer behind the split leather can increase its tensile strength and help control the amount of tension and maintain its shape. This balances its properties. For a long time, a type of cotton taro fabric was a traditional choice for use as reinforcement, because the delicate fuzz coming out of the fabric created resistance as well as a feeling of relative softness. There is a better choice available today that is a cotton or non-woven loop fabric made of polyester, polypropylene and nylon that is suitable for end use (especially in the case of boots and shoes that require initial molding).

Split leather edges should be reinforced with either an edge fastener or edge tape on the folded edges. There are actually two distinct types of edge tape. One type is the thin braids made of polyester or nylon, which are used when folding the edge with heat inside. This type is very convenient to use. Another type is wide adhesive coated tapes that are used before folding and can be subjected to initial stress to neutralize the tension on the folding machine.

Dalir Leather Industries, a manufacturer and supplier of various types of split leather in different colors and with high thicknesses, is ready to serve you dear ones.

Author: Ms. Maryam Semsarha

Expert and researcher of the Institute of Standards

foreign Currency leather producers

foreign Currency leather producers

Importation of foreign Currency and job creation by the leather industry

The use of natural leather and leather products in human life has a long history.  Our country with a long history in this field is one of the oldest leather producers in the world. leather industry

Looking at the relics left, we find that the Persians used leather to make shoes, clothes, and weapons around 1500 BC.  Iran’s first leather factory was opened in 1312 in Hamedan and then in 1314, the second factory was opened in Tabriz.  According to Dalir Leather Industries, Tabriz is currentlay known as the center of the leather and shoe industry in Iran.

However, at present, this industry has not been able to keep pace with the current developments in our country.  In recent years, the shoe industry in our country has entered a competitive environment, but nevertheless has not yet been able to show its capabilities in the relative exposure to global markets, including neighboring countries.

Experts believe that the leather industry in our country has a high capacity for currency exchange, entrepreneurship, and job creation. Since the prosperity of the country’s leather industry plays a key role in the financial and economic structure of the country, it is necessary for the government to provide the necessary support to activists in this field, which unfortunately the shortcomings of the government have been obvious.

The leather industry is one of the indigenous industries in our country and certainly has a lot to say.  Regarding the situation of the country’s leather industry, a member of the board of the Iranian Leather Industry Association had recently said in a radio program that the leather industry is employment-oriented and at the same time has a very high added value several times that of crude oil, which unfortunately loses due to salambour exports.leather producers

The wheel of every country is based on production, and it is definitely the scourge of any raw material industry.  Given the key importance of exporting the final goods of the leather industry in the economy, governments around the world have prepared detailed plans for better exports in this area so that they can continue to grow and dynamize in the market of leather and leather products.leather producers

Exporting leather in the form of bags, shoes, jackets, belts, etc. has a significant profit compared to exporting leather in the form of raw materials; therefore, it demands that planning and policy-making in the country be given more attention in this direction.  The shoe industry is one of the most employment-generating and lucrative industries in the world. Fortunately, this industry is growing in Iran today.

Tabriz as the center of the country’s leather and also Tabriz shoes is the owner of the brand of the country’s leather products.  Currently, 50 large industrial units are operating in the Tabriz leather bag and shoe industry. In the field of shoes, there are 5500 leather production units in Tabriz, of which about 4300 units have a business license and 1200 units have a business license.

Of these 4300 production units, about 2400 units are active in the production sector, 1400 units in the sales sector, and 500 service units. According to statistics, currently, 250 leather production units, more than 95% of which are engaged in the production of heavy leather and the rest in the production of light leather, are operating in the city of Tabriz and the products of this industry in addition to meeting the domestic market needs, exported to China, Turkey, Hong Kong, Italy, Spain, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.leather producers

But the shoe market is facing a recession and the situation of Tabriz shoe exports does not seem favorable.  About 40,000 people are directly active in the Tabriz shoe industry and 110,000 people are indirectly active in this industry, such as slaughterhouses and downstream industries and similar sectors.

Also, about 70 to 90 million pairs of shoes are produced per year, which covers between 45 to 60% of the total leather production of the country and also 15% of the total industry. In addition, almost 90% of handmade leather shoes in the whole country are produced in Tabriz.

World leather industry leaders

Italy is one of the pioneers in the leather industry.

By investing in China, India, and Pakistan and transferring technical knowledge, it also has a say in the leather industry of those countries. Turkey ranks second in the industry after Italy, and the United States is the largest buyer of leather in the world. Iran is also among the top three countries in the production of leather and the export of semi-finished products. Our country’s leather production is ranked third in the world in terms of quantity and quality, but the point is that most of our country’s leather exports are salambour and raw, which is due to the lack of necessary infrastructure and tools for processing and production of leather products. In other countries, including Turkey, the leather exchange is the most important feature of this industry.leather producers

few more tips on recognizing leather

few more tips on recognizing leather

The older the leather, the better the quality

Natural leather is like a handmade rug; That is, the more he works the better and more beautiful he becomes. A 10-year-old leather product can never be compared to a new leather product; because during these 10 years, it acquires flexibility that new leather lacks. There are people who believe that the older the leather, the more beautiful it is, and even in some parts of the world they use fans to make the new leather look old.

It is interesting to know that when two people buy the same product at the same time, these products will look completely different after a few years and will no longer be similar, and each of them will look beautiful. Properly covered, it will withstand a lot of adverse conditions for up to 10 to 15 years. recognizing leather

Get to know the enemies of leather

The leather should be protected from contact with any sharp objects because if it is scratched, it will not be repairable. Auto stains will never be removed from the leather and will leave a lasting impression on it; Therefore, be careful never to bring the tip of the pen close to your leather goods.

Perfume, spray, and cologne should not be applied directly on leather clothing. Under no circumstances should leather clothes be washed in the washing machine; because washing powder and water can completely damage the leather. recognizing leather

Do not try to remove very deep stains or stains that are difficult to remove yourself. In these cases, it is better to seek advice from a specialist or store from which you bought the leather, and do not use detergents to remove stains or paint on the leather yourself. recognizing leather

The relationship between hangers and leather

Natural leather must be hung from a hanger; especially if you do not plan to use it for a while. Because if you hang the leather from a sharp point, the leather may lose its original shape and this deformation is irreversible. For leather storage, the ambient temperature should be between 25 and 30 degrees. recognizing leather

How to distinguish natural leather from plastic (synthetic leather)?

1- The first recommendation is to try to buy leather from reputable stores; because these days, there are a lot of imported and low-quality leathers. Some of them even have leather essential oils and smell like leather; therefore, natural leather cannot be detected by smell.

2- When touching different parts of natural leather, the leather should not be uniform; That is, it is thin in some places and thick in others. Because different parts of the animal’s skin have different thicknesses. While plastic (synthetic leather) because it is made with the device, is completely uniform.

3- When you expose natural leather to light, it does not reflect light evenly and in some places, the leather looks dull and in some places, it looks shiny. recognizing leather

Wash rain stains on leather with baby shampoo

Polluted rains, which are not uncommon in densely populated cities these days, can severely damage your leather goods. If you suddenly get caught in heavy rain, you should wipe the contaminated rain off the leather very soon with a sponge soaked in baby shampoo and then dry it.

Of course, be careful that the back of the leather should not get wet in any way; because it loses its flexibility. In general, it is better not to use leather products on rainy days so that it does not get wet inside.

How to wash leather

Leather should not be washed in the washing machine; Instead, leave your leather clothes to a reputable dry cleaner who you are sure will use a leather wash specialist.

Leather cannot be washed at home; because if water reaches the back of the leather, the leather loses its softness and softness and will no longer be as flexible and dry as before.

Dust is the enemy of leather and you have to clean it every once in a while. To do this, mix a tablespoon of baby shampoo with lukewarm water and 3 to 4 drops of vinegar and rub gently on the leather. Then rinse the shampoos with plain water and then dry with a cloth. Finally, you can massage the skin with regular waxes. recognizing leather

Leather preparation in Bookbinding

Leather preparation in Bookbinding

What is leather production processes?

Leather production or tanning of the skin is a physicochemical process in which perishable raw skin, due to physical actions and the effects of chemicals or plants, becomes a non-perishable and valuable product that can be used by humans called leather.

Leather production steps

In general, raw skin turns into leather after the following steps:

 

1) Soaking and washing stage

Initially, the skins are soaked in pools that have blades to move the skins. Cold water then flows onto the salted skin, dissolving the salt in the water. By reducing the concentration of salt in the space between the skin fibers and removing salt from the skin fibers, the osmotic pressure of water inside the fibers will increase and the skin will become hydrated again. At this stage, as water is absorbed into the skin, spherical proteins are removed from the collagen fibers. These isolated spherical proteins contain blood albumin and other water-soluble proteins that dissolve in water as salt decreases and are excreted from the skin. Obviously, the presence of these proteins among the skin fibers reduces the quality of the leather.

Essential tips in the soaking stage to produce quality leather

– Use of antibacterial agents to prevent the possibility of bacterial regrowth that could harm workers or cause the spread of the disease or damage to three superficial parts of the skin, usually using chlorinated aromatic compounds.

– Pay attention to water temperature: in the soaking stage, if the water temperature is high, it causes the activity of bacteria and its destructive effect on the skin. Although raising the water temperature speeds up the soaking process, raising the water temperature too much lowers the quality of the leather produced and also creates unevenness in the fibers and streaks of the leather.

– Applying additives such as sodium sulfide (S2Na) or sodium tetrasulfide (S2Na) to drinking water, by affecting the hair creatine, loosens the hair roots.

– The soaking time is at least 48 hours and after this time the skin should be washed.

Results of the skin soaking and washing process

– The skin is cleansed of blood and impurities.

– Water-soluble proteins (spherical proteins) are separated from the skin.

– The chemicals used to maintain and disinfect the skin are separated from it.

– Due to soaking, the skin returns to its natural state by absorbing enough water and tanning is done on it easily.

Liming

In general, the process of lime is to loosen the hair follicles, raise the pH and eliminate or help eliminate excess proteins and fats in the skin in later stages.

Hardened lime (O2CaOH) has low solubility in water and can increase the pH of the solution to 12.5. Hardened lime causes fibrous structure of proteins and gradual decomposition of their structure.

Salted lime will have different effects on the three main proteins in the skin. The solubility of spherical proteins is very high. Collagen also dissolves only in the presence of strong acids and bases for a relatively long time. This calcareous environment breaks down the keratin molecules of the hair and dissolves them without damaging the collagen of the skin and consequently the quality of the leather, and loosens the hair roots to a desirable level. Also, this calcareous environment, by affecting the molecules of elastin proteins, prepares them for complete elimination in the enzyme step and completely destroys the spherical proteins.

3) Fleshing

After the liming stage, the flossing operation is performed to remove all unnecessary skin tissues that are on the inner surface and without skin hairs. After the skin is completely softened by absorbing water, the appendages attached to the fleshy part that remain after the skin is removed from the carcass are completely removed from the skin along with other excess tissues by a device called a lash bar. This causes the chemicals that are added to the skin in the next step to penetrate evenly and well into the skin and improve the quality of the product.

4) Hair removal

Hair removal of goat and sheep skins is done by rubbing a solution of lime and sodium sulfide on the skin part of the skin. After rubbing the solution, the skins are divided into 40 to 50 groups in the direction that the skin side is inwards, and thus the classified skins remain in the same state overnight. The hair is then easily separated from the skin by a device.

Basically, sodium sulfide can be used to make the hair removal process take less time. Also, by adding methylamine, lime, sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide, you can remove hair from fresh skin and salt.

In addition, for the removal of heavy skin such as cow, calf, buffalo, etc., the hair removal method is used along with the breakdown of the hair structure, in which the skin is placed at least in balaban (drum) and sodium sulfide and sulfides are used. Sodium is added to the water inside the balaban in a suitable amount and in this way the mowing is done.

5) Lime removal and enzyme supply

In order to remove excess lime and adjust the pH for the enzymatic step, calcium hydroxide 2 (Ca OH) absorbed into the skin must be removed and the pH of the skin lowered. Also, to lower the pH of the acid, it is essential, like hydroelectric acid, to balance the amount of consumables so that the lime dissolves and is easily removed from the skin. Iron and other substances along with the skin can be completely removed from the skin by rinsing with water or acid and ammonium sulfate:

CaCl2 + H2O + HCl2 = CaSO4 + 22H2O + NH3 (Ca (OH2 (CA (OH + 2SO4 (NH4)))))

Calcium hydroxide dissolves well in ammonium sulfate, and because the pH in such an environment will be between 7 and 8, calcium pH is highly soluble in this amount of pH, and in this condition, lime is gradually removed from the skin.

Hydrochloric acid can be used for further degreasing. Lactic acid is used to regulate the pH of skin that will be tanned with plant materials. In addition, in order to remove waste products and absorbed sodium sulfide, the skin should be washed with running water for at least one hour, and after the result is determined by the phenolphthalein detector, the enzymatic phase begins. In the enzymatic stage, the skin wastes are digested and the skin is ready for tanning.

The substances that are removed from the skin at this stage are: non-collagenous proteins, the outer layer of the skin, hair and blemishes on the surface of the skin, hair follicles and skin pores that must be completely removed. Also, to produce high-quality and soft leather, protein fibers that are resistant to chemicals are separated from the skin during the enzymatic stage.

6) In tanning with chromium salts, formic acid, sodium carbonate and other salts are the chemicals that are used. In the tanning process with chromium salts, these salts react with the skin fibers and give a lot of stability to the skin fibers, which makes it resistant to high temperatures and bacterial attack. Hence, leather made with this method does not have many desirable characteristics. Therefore, after the tanning stage, the skin should be strengthened again with chrome or plant materials, and then by oiling and dyeing, the leather should become the desired leather.

In general, chemicals used in the tanning process are divided into three categories:

1- Minerals (chromium salts, aluminum)

2- Plant materials (plant extracts such as oak, pomegranate)

3- Industrial materials (formaldehyde resins)

1) Definition and application of leather

Leather is a substance produced from the tanning of the raw skins of animals such as cows. Leather is an important material with different uses. The main use of this material is in the shoe industry and it is also widely used in binding. In addition, leather, along with wood, formed the basis of most ancient arts. The leather industry and the fur industry are separate industries that are separated due to the importance of their raw materials. In the leather industry, raw material is a by-product of the meat industry, because meat has more value than skin.

In the animal fur industry, leather is more valuable and therefore meat is a by-product. Animal skins are also used in skin decoration, stuffing of animals with straw and Taxidermy, but generally the head and parts of the back of the animal are used. Of course, leather has other uses as well.

2- Leather production

There are several processes by which animal skins become flexible and strong, commonly called leather. Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using cream sulfate and other cream salts.

The leather obtained from this method is not only softer and more flexible than the vegetable tanned leather, but also retains its color and shape in water. The type of chromium used in the process should not be confused with chromium hexavalent (which is carcinogenic) but has no tanning properties.

Hexavalent chromium is rarely found in creamy leathers, but if the leather is misplaced and incorrectly bleached, for example, the presence of this substance becomes confusing and astonishing. Vegetable tanned leathers are tanned using tannins, and there are other plant elements and components, bark and similar sources.

This type of leather is soft and its color is brown, the color spectrum of which depends on the combination of skin color and chemicals used. Vegetable tanned leather is not stable in water, it loses its color and if it remains in moisture and then dries, it shrinks, loses its softness and becomes harder. In hot water, it shrinks sharply and takes on a rubbery state, hardening and gradually breaking.

Boiled leather is an example of leather that has been stripped naked by immersion in hot water or similar material. Historical evidence shows that this type of leather was used due to its light weight and hardness in armor as well as in bookbinding.

Aldehyde skins are tanned using glutaraldehyde with oxazolidine compounds. This type of leather is usually produced by tanners as white leather and light cream. This is the most important group of leathers that do not use chrome and are often found in children’s shoes and car seat covers that prefer to use non-chrome leathers. Formaldehyde tanning, another type of aldehyde tanning, is less commonly used because it is dangerous to workers and many people are sensitive to formaldehyde.

Brain tanned leathers, which fall into this category, are exceptionally water-absorbent. They are produced by the arduous process of suspending fats extracted from animal brains. They are known for their exceptional softness and washability.

Chamois leather

Very thin leather made from the skin of sheep, goats and deer. This leather is also in the category of aldehyde tanners and, like the previous group, increases the production of leather by absorbing moisture. This type of leather is produced using oil (traditionally a type of fish oil) which is easily oxidized to produce aldehydes used in tanning.

Raw skin is obtained by placing fresh skin in lime and then pulling it out while drying. This material is not technically similar to tanned tan, but is usually in the same category as other types. Rashide skin is drier and more brittle than other types of leather and has uses such as drum covers where it does not require much flexibility; They are also used in the production of embroidered yarns and stitches and with dog chews.

Vegetable leather can usually be lubricated to increase water resistance. This complements the natural oil remaining in the leather itself, which allows the leather to be washed more often. Multiple lubrication of leather with mink oil and similar materials softens the product and increases its durability incredibly.

As you know, Iran is one of the top producers of skin in the world (it has 70 million sheep) and Iranian sheep skin is one of the best skins after Australia, which is due to the presence of a soft fat under the skin, but However, due to the inefficiency of the leather industry, they export salambour or wet blue with very low added value to countries such as Turkey and Pakistan, and unfortunately, unprofessional policies to control the export of these products cause serious damage to the country’s leather industry. he does. Fortunately, in the last few years, the government has forced exporters to export Wet Blue percentage of salambour, which is somewhat more valuable. About 80% will be added to its value, which in addition to high currency, will also employ the youth of this region.

Another point that is noteworthy is that European countries, in order to allow products to enter their country, must first pass European standards and control various laboratory quality, which unfortunately, due to lack of equipment and ignorance of craftsmen to these very attractive markets. No attention was paid by our experienced craftsmen and Turkey and Italy took over this market.

 

Types of natural oils for leather making

In this article, we will get acquainted with the types of oils used in this industry.

Animal oils and fats

Tallow

It is obtained by refining cow fat. To do this, the animal fat is boiled in water to melt and then separated from the water. This fat has a melting point of 35 to 38 degrees Celsius, is yellow, hard and has good filling properties. Lubricates good leather without making it too soft or stretchy. Also, if it is not hot during use, it is difficult to penetrate the skin. Its main use is in feeding mixed fats (such as a mixture of tallow and fish oil) to leather.

The presence of fish oil helps the fat to penetrate deeper and deeper into the leather. If this material spoils, it accumulates on the surface of the leather and creates stains.

Sheep tallow

It is similar to beef tallow, but harder and whiter. Its melting point is 35 to 38 degrees Celsius.

Stearic acid

This substance is present in beef tallow. It is a hard, white solid and a type of fatty acid and is the main cause of dandruff in leather.

Neats foot oil

It is obtained by boiling the venom of various animals (mostly the venom of cattle, sheep and horses) in water. After collecting the oil from the water surface, it is obtained as a thick, pale yellow liquid that does not oxidize and turn blue in the presence of air. The main use of this high-quality oil is in making leathers that are tanned with chromium salts.

This oil has a very good penetration power and at the same time it makes the leather flexible, it also prevents it from becoming too soft. Otherwise, the leather will flake and turn yellow and remove wrinkles. Toxic oil is a type of garlic oil and can be sulfated to dissolve in water.

Fish oil

Fish liver oil, which is obtained by boiling fresh fish liver in water and collecting the separated oils, is a yellowish-brown liquid with a pungent odor of fish and is easily sulfated. It has good penetration power, it is easily oxidized and its color turns blue. After sulfation, these defects become less. A mixture of sulfated fish oil and mineral oil is used to lubricate cumin leathers made with plant materials and second-hand leather leathers

Whale oil

It is obtained from whale fat. The best type is hydrogenated and margarine is made from it. Whale head oil has most of the same properties as wax and its color is yellowish-brown and does not have the bad smell of fish oil. This oil can be sulfated. Its permeability is very high and it is used in making soft leathers for gloves and clothes.

Moellon

Moellon is a natural leather that is produced by oxidizing the crude oil of fish liver, while trimming the skin of sheep and goats. Synthetic molasses is obtained by aeration under the control of crude fish liver oil. This type of oil dissolves in water and is not stable against acids.

Vegetable oils

Coconut oil

This vegetable oil is obtained by squeezing the coconut skin. Its properties are similar to wool oil. It is superior to white leathers because it does not change color in the light. Sulfated coconut oil solution is used in the lubrication stage.

Cator oil

This oil is obtained by squeezing the seeds of the gerchak plant in the form of a thick and pale liquid. Its mixture with beef tallow oil is called leather oil and it is used to waterproof leathers and also as a softener in leather polishing.

Waxes

Waxes are abundant in nature and are found in the salivary secretions of some insects, such as bees. In animals and plants, waxes are present as a protective layer. Like whale oil, also called camphor wax. Chemically, waxes are the esterification of ten-carbon or higher fatty acids or one-factor alcohols with more than 10 carbon atoms in their molecules. Are formed.

Carnoba wax

It is yellow and brittle and is obtained from Brazilian palm. It is an expensive polishing agent for leather and increases its durability. Fingerprint does not remain on it and its color does not darken due to dust and softens the leather.

Beeswax

This wax is obtained by melting the beehive and its melting point is between 60 and 64 degrees Celsius. This wax absorbs dust and has a high adhesion property.

Wool oil (lanolin)

This substance is obtained from the remains of washing the skin in the stage of weathering and wool removal. Its ingredients are different and it is made of some fat (glycerin) and vaccines (alcohol and fatty acids). The most famous type of wool oil is lanolin. Its permeability is high even in mechanical leathers such as belt leather.

Candelilla wax

Its properties are similar to Carnovia wax and only its melting point is lower.

Paraffin wax

It is a white wax from which cheap candles are made. Its mixture with resin is the main material for waterproofing tanned leathers with chromium salts. In the leather polishing step, it is mixed with a solvent and water to make a non-viscous wax with a pigment.